BASIC SYSTEM

  • Strong 1NT with four-card majors, 2-over-1 game-forcing

  • 1C, 1DGood hand, 4+ suit, unbalanced or a weak no-trump (12-14). 4441 hands open one of a minor and if the singleton is in spades, a 1D opening is mandatory if not holding reversing strength.
    1H, 1Sgood hand, unbalanced (5-card suit) or a weak no-trump (12-14, 4-card suit)
    1NT15-17, semi-balanced, no singleton
    2Cgame force, any distribution
    2D18-20, semi-balanced, no singleton
    2 of a major in 1st-3rd seat6-10, 6+ trumps, normally denies four cards in the other major
    2H in 4th seat10-14, 6+ trumps, denies four spades.
    2S in 4th seat8-12, 6+ trumps, denies four hearts.
    2NT20-22, semi-balanced, no singleton
    3+ suitpre-emptive
    3NTGambling 3NT, long solid minor (7+ cards) with at most Q outside. Might possibly stretch a point and have an outside king instead in third seat, but it's not advised.
    4NTAcol 4NT, asking for specific aces
    5NTasking for specific kings

    MAIN ARTIFICIAL BIDS

  • 2D opening is 18-20 balanced, Inverted Minors, Pudding Raises, Jump-fits, Michaels + Unusual 2NT, Leaping Michaels, Minorwood
  • GENERAL BIDDING PRINCIPLES

  • A competitive bid in the pass-out seat is a king weaker than if bid directly.
  • More flexible about aggressive third-seat opening bids.
  • Assume strong overcalls of weak bids and weak overcalls of strong bids
  • SPECIFIC SYSTEM POINTS

  • Responses to a natural 1NT/2NT overcall have the same meaning as after a no-trump opening bid of the same level.
  • 5332 is treated as balanced, even with 5CM. Thus 1H 1S 2H shows a six-card suit.
  • A one-of-a-suit opener's 2NT rebid is game-forcing opposite a weak response, but natural opposite a stronger one.
  • New suit response (below game) to partner's overcall/weak two/pre-empt is forcing (if the intermediate hand passed)
  • Super-accepts are only permitted in response to transfers bids up to the three-level.
  • "RULE OF THUMB" GUIDELINES TO USE IF IN DOUBT

    Splinter LevelBlackwood LevelGrand-Hunting Level
    Unnecessary jump shiftsplinterExclusion BlackwoodComplete two-suiter
    To transfer and then bid a second suitassumed to be either natural or a splinter (in the absence of more specific agreements for a particular sequence), depending on whether or not it's an unnecessary jump. However you can't splinter for your own suit except as responder in certain sequences after partner opened a strong balanced hand, so 1H 1NT 4D (for example) is natural because responder hasn't shown a suit.Exclusion Blackwood, except that the cheapest non-trump bid if Minorwood has been bypassed will normally be taken as Minorwood.Complete two-suiter

    TERMINOLOGY

    Splinter Levelbelow four of an agreed trump suit
    Blackwood Levelbetween four and five of an agreed trump suit
    Grand-Hunting Levelbetween five and six of an agreed trump suit

    RESPONSES TO OPENING 1C

    PassVery weak (0-5 points), no desire to shut out opponents.
    Double of suit overcallTake-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double of an overcall and then pull partner's response when they do take it out is non-forcing with at least a five-card suit, since an immediate bid would have been forcing. (The logic is different after 1NT openings.)
    Double of no-trump overcallPenalties
    Redouble10+, wants to double for penalties, often a misfit. During the subsequent auction, the partnership has one standard takeout double "in the bank". This is in order to distinguish between a hand that simply wants to compete (will pass and wait for partner to make a takeout double) and one with game-forcing strength (will bid directly, forcing).
    Minimum cue bid of overcall where the partnership can still stop in part-score; i.e. below 3 of opener's suitUnassuming Cue-Bid, with trump support and intermediate points. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    1D, 1H, 1Snatural, one-round force
    1NT after overcallNatural, constructive, about 7.5-10 points and denying four cards in any unbid major. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.
    1NTA balanced hand with club support that doesn't have a four-card major, is too weak for 1C 2C and doesn't want to bid 1C 3C.
    New suit at 2 level after 1NT overcallNatural, non-forcing and to play, because a hand with game-going strength would have doubled.
    Raise to 2Inverted Minor, 4+ trump support, denies a five-card major, forcing to 3m, 10-ish points or stronger.
    Raise to 2 after overcallWeak, with trump support. If only three, had no better bid.
    Raise to 2 after doubleWeak, promises no strength at all
    2NT11-12, balanced, would have raised a weak 1NT to two. Denies a four-card major and four of partner's suit, so by inference must have at least four of the other minor.
    2NT after doubleIntermediate jump raise in partner's suit. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    2NT after overcallNatural, constructive, about 11-12 points. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.
    Jump shiftStrong six-card suit, 16+ points. Still applies after any intervention except a 1NT overcall.
    Jump shift by passed hand or after 1NT overcallFit-Jump, two-suited, at least 5-4, trump support for partner. Forcing and normally shows an 8-loser hand or so, without enough strength to go to game.
    New suit response from a passed hand above 2 of opener's suit (after opponents' intervention)Whatever the same bid would have meant without the intervention, e.g. pass (pass) 1C (1S) 2H is a fit-jump in hearts, just as it would have been without the overcall.
    Jump raiseInverted Minor, 4+ trumps, denies a four-card major, weak. More informative than the equivalent Inverted Minor raise of a 1D opening bid, since the existence of the 1C 1NT alternative (also showing a club fit) means that partner has actually chosen to pre-empt instead of merely being forced to jump against their will by the bidding system.
    Jump cue bid after overcallSplinter
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, denying a 4 card major. If the splinter is in a major, then by inference must have at least nine minor-suit cards. However if the splinter is in the other minor, then must have at least six-card trump support in a 6331 hand.
    3NTstrong no-trump (i.e. balanced 15-17) with four-card trump support.
    Raise to 4mMinorwood
    Game raise (opponents silent)Shows shape rather than points, might be pre-emptive.
    Game raise (contested auction)To play.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONSES TO AN OPENING 1C AFTER A NATURAL 2C OVERCALL, PROMISING CLUBS

    Passeither (a) weak, or (b) a stronger but not game-going hand that would like to compete. Partner can always reopen with a takeout double.
    Double8+ points, theoretically takeout but in practice any hand that wants to give partner the chance to pass for penalties.
    New suit at 2-levelgame-forcing, natural, playing strength rather than defensive values.
    New suit at 2-level if passed hand6-card suit, 6+ points, standard Weak Two continuations.
    2NTtake-out, game-forcing
    2NT if a passed handtake-out
    3Cprobe for 3NT
    New suit at 3-level6-card suit, 16+ points
    New suit at 3-level if passed hand7-card suit, weak
    3NTto play

    DEFENCE TO 1C

    Any bid in the pass-out seatA king weaker than when bid directly.
    DoubleOne of two hand types. DEFAULT ASSUMPTION: take-out, opening strength, support for unbid suits. This is a "say it once and shut up" bid that thereafter leaves all competitive decisions to partner and the doubler is not expected to bid again unless partner finds a bid that asks them to do so. To do so shows extreme strength (17+) and previous assumptions about shape no longer apply. NOTE: this bid promises proper opening values (i.e. you'd been going to open the bidding if the opponents had passed) AND support for the unbid suits. Opening a 4441 10-count "because the shape is perfect" is a violation of all that is good and will cause cancer in kittens.
    Suit overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level
    Jump suit overcallWeak Two, 6-10 and a 6-card suit
    Suit jump in the pass-out seat10-14 actual points (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies a four-card major side-suit, like a fourth-seat 2H opening.
    Suit jump in spades in the pass-out seat8-12 (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies four hearts, like a fourth-seat 2S opening.
    Greater jump suit overcallPre-emptive
    1NT from a passed hand (protective)Stretching with a good eleven-count and the usual transferred-king principle.
    1NT from a passed hand (non-protective)5-5 shape and a distribution that can't be shown with either Unusual 2NT or Michaels, e.g. the black suits after a diamond opening. If there's no such unshowable distribution (i.e. after a major opening), it's the LOWER of the two Michaels options, i.e. (1S) passed-hand-1NT would show clubs+hearts.
    1NT15-17, natural, with a useful holding in any opposition suits. Responses are the same as after a 1NT opening bid.
    2C cue bidNatural club overcall. This remains true even if the opponents are playing a natural system and their 1C actually shows clubs. Our 2C overcall retains the same meaning irrespective of that.
    2D over one of a minorMichaels, 5-5 in the majors
    2NT5-5 in the lowest two unbid suits, Unusual 2NT
    Jump to 3-level cue bidasking partner to bid 3NT if they have a stopper in this suit
    Jump to 3NTTo play, long running minor.
    4NTAcol 4NT, asking for specific aces
    5NTasking for specific kings

    RESPONSES TO OPENING 1D

    PassVery weak (0-5 points), no desire to shut out opponents.
    Double of suit overcallTake-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double of an overcall and then pull partner's response when they do take it out is non-forcing with at least a five-card suit, since an immediate bid would have been forcing. (The logic is different after 1NT openings.)
    Double of no-trump overcallPenalties
    Redouble10+, wants to double for penalties, often a misfit. During the subsequent auction, the partnership has one standard takeout double "in the bank". This is in order to distinguish between a hand that simply wants to compete (will pass and wait for partner to make a takeout double) and one with game-forcing strength (will bid directly, forcing).
    Minimum cue bid of overcall where the partnership can still stop in part-score; i.e. below 3 of opener's suitUnassuming Cue-Bid, with trump support and intermediate points. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    1H, 1Snatural, one-round force
    1NTsingle-suited in clubs
    1NT after overcallNatural, constructive, about 7.5-10 points and denying four cards in any unbid major. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.
    New suit at 2 level after 1NT overcallNatural, non-forcing and to play, because a hand with game-going strength would have doubled. Auctions like 1S (1NT) 2C from a passed hand no longer show a weak hand with three-card trump support because that's too dangerous after the 1NT overcall, while intermediate hands will just double.
    2C4+ clubs, game-forcing
    2C if passed hand (uncontested auction)Exactly 3 diamonds, values to raise to the two level. Also denies a four-card major, so must have a natural club suit.
    2C after suit overcallExactly 3 diamonds, values to raise to the two level.
    Raise to 2Inverted Minor, 4+ trump support, denies a five-card major, forcing to 3m, 10-ish points or stronger.
    Raise to 2 after overcallWeak, with trump support. If only three, had no better bid.
    Raise to 2 after doubleWeak, promises no strength at all
    2NT11-12, balanced, would have raised a weak 1NT to two. Denies a four-card major and four of partner's suit, so by inference must have at least four of the other minor.
    2NT after doubleIntermediate jump raise in partner's suit. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    2NT after overcallNatural, constructive, about 11-12 points. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.
    Jump shiftStrong six-card suit, 16+ points. Still applies after any intervention except a 1NT overcall.
    Jump shift by passed hand or after 1NT overcallFit-Jump, two-suited, at least 5-4, trump support for partner. Forcing and normally shows an 8-loser hand or so, without enough strength to go to game.
    New suit response from a passed hand above 2 of opener's suit (after opponents' intervention)Whatever the same bid would have meant without the intervention, e.g. pass (pass) 1C (1S) 2H is a fit-jump in hearts, just as it would have been without the overcall.
    Jump raiseInverted Minor, 4+ trumps, denies a four-card major, weak
    Jump cue bid after overcallSplinter
    3NTstrong no-trump (i.e. balanced 15-17) with four-card trump support.
    Raise to 4mMinorwood
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, denying a 4 card major. If the splinter is in a major, then by inference must have at least nine minor-suit cards. However if the splinter is in the other minor, then must have at least six-card trump support in a 6331 hand.
    Game raise (opponents silent)Shows shape rather than points, might be pre-emptive.
    Game raise (contested auction)To play.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    DEFENCE TO 1D

    Any bid in the pass-out seatA king weaker than when bid directly.
    DoubleOne of two hand types. DEFAULT ASSUMPTION: take-out, opening strength, support for unbid suits. This is a "say it once and shut up" bid that thereafter leaves all competitive decisions to partner and the doubler is not expected to bid again unless partner finds a bid that asks them to do so. To do so shows extreme strength (17+) and previous assumptions about shape no longer apply. NOTE: this bid promises proper opening values (i.e. you'd been going to open the bidding if the opponents had passed) AND support for the unbid suits. Opening a 4441 10-count "because the shape is perfect" is a violation of all that is good and will cause cancer in kittens.
    Suit overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level
    Jump suit overcallWeak Two, 6-10 and a 6-card suit
    Suit jump in the pass-out seat10-14 actual points (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies a four-card major side-suit, like a fourth-seat 2H opening.
    Suit jump in spades in the pass-out seat8-12 (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies four hearts, like a fourth-seat 2S opening.
    Greater jump suit overcallPre-emptive
    1NT from a passed hand (protective)Stretching with a good eleven-count and the usual transferred-king principle.
    1NT from a passed hand (non-protective)5-5 shape and a distribution that can't be shown with either Unusual 2NT or Michaels, e.g. the black suits after a diamond opening. If there's no such unshowable distribution (i.e. after a major opening), it's the LOWER of the two Michaels options, i.e. (1S) passed-hand-1NT would show clubs+hearts.
    1NT15-17, natural, with a useful holding in any opposition suits. Responses are the same as after a 1NT opening bid.
    2D over one of a minorMichaels, 5-5 in the majors
    2NT5-5 in the lowest two unbid suits, Unusual 2NT
    Jump to 3-level cue bidasking partner to bid 3NT if they have a stopper in this suit
    Jump to 3NTTo play, long running minor.
    4NTAcol 4NT, asking for specific aces
    5NTasking for specific kings

    RESPONSES TO OPENING 1H

    PassVery weak (0-5 points), no desire to shut out opponents.
    Double of suit overcallTake-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double of an overcall and then pull partner's response when they do take it out is non-forcing with at least a five-card suit, since an immediate bid would have been forcing. (The logic is different after 1NT openings.)
    Double of no-trump overcallPenalties
    Redouble10+, wants to double for penalties, often a misfit. During the subsequent auction, the partnership has one standard takeout double "in the bank". This is in order to distinguish between a hand that simply wants to compete (will pass and wait for partner to make a takeout double) and one with game-forcing strength (will bid directly, forcing).
    Minimum cue bid of overcall where the partnership can still stop in part-score; i.e. below 3 of opener's suitUnassuming Cue-Bid, with trump support and intermediate points. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    1Snatural, one-round force
    1NT after overcallNatural, constructive, about 7.5-10 points. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.
    1NTUnable to make any other response, says nothing about shape
    New suit at 2 level after 1NT overcallNatural, non-forcing and to play, because a hand with game-going strength would have doubled. Auctions like 1S (1NT) 2C from a passed hand no longer show a weak hand with three-card trump support because that's too dangerous after the 1NT overcall, while intermediate hands will just double.
    2C if passed hand3-card support for partner, 2-level values and no better bid available. In an uncontested auction, denies a spade suit. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with clubs.
    2D if passed hand3-card support for partner, intermediate points and no better bid available. In an uncontested auction, denies a spade suit. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with diamonds.
    2 of a minorGame-forcing, assumed to be 4 cards but occasionally a waiting bid.
    Raise to 2Weak, with trump support. If only three, had no better bid and in particular didn't much like the look of any of the less marginal responses (i.e. 1NT).
    Raise to 2 after overcallWeak, with trump support. If only three, had no better bid.
    Raise to 2 after doubleWeak, promises no strength at all
    2NT11-12, balanced, would have raised a weak 1NT to two. Denies a four-card major. This promises precisely a doubleton in partner's suit if a passed-hand 2D response had been available to show intermediate strength with three-card trump support.
    2NT after doubleIntermediate jump raise in partner's suit. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    2NT after overcallNatural, constructive, about 11-12 points. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.
    Jump shiftStrong six-card suit, 16+ points. Still applies after any intervention except a 1NT overcall.
    Jump shift by passed hand or after 1NT overcallFit-Jump, two-suited, at least 5-4, trump support for partner. Forcing and normally shows an 8-loser hand or so, without enough strength to go to game.
    New suit response from a passed hand above 2 of opener's suit (after opponents' intervention)Whatever the same bid would have meant without the intervention, e.g. pass (pass) 1C (1S) 2H is a fit-jump in hearts, just as it would have been without the overcall.
    Jump raise4-card support, intermediate (10 points or so)
    Jump raise to 3 after interventionPre-emptive. A redouble or an Unassuming Cue Bid is the bid to show an intermediate raise.
    Jump cue bid after overcallSplinter
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTstrong no-trump (i.e. balanced 15-17) with four-card trump support.
    Game raise (opponents silent)Shows shape rather than points, might be pre-emptive.
    Game raise (contested auction)To play.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    DEFENCE TO 1H

    Any bid in the pass-out seatA king weaker than when bid directly.
    DoubleOne of two hand types. DEFAULT ASSUMPTION: take-out, opening strength, support for unbid suits. This is a "say it once and shut up" bid that thereafter leaves all competitive decisions to partner and the doubler is not expected to bid again unless partner finds a bid that asks them to do so. To do so shows extreme strength (17+) and previous assumptions about shape no longer apply. NOTE: this bid promises proper opening values (i.e. you'd been going to open the bidding if the opponents had passed) AND support for the unbid suits. Opening a 4441 10-count "because the shape is perfect" is a violation of all that is good and will cause cancer in kittens.
    Cue bid of majorMichaels, 5-5 shape, the other major and a minor
    Suit overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level
    Jump suit overcallWeak Two, 6-10 and a 6-card suit
    Suit jump in the pass-out seat10-14 actual points (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies a four-card major side-suit, like a fourth-seat 2H opening.
    Suit jump in spades in the pass-out seat8-12 (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies four hearts, like a fourth-seat 2S opening.
    Greater jump suit overcallPre-emptive
    1NT from a passed hand (protective)Stretching with a good eleven-count and the usual transferred-king principle.
    1NT from a passed hand (non-protective)5-5 shape and a distribution that can't be shown with either Unusual 2NT or Michaels, e.g. the black suits after a diamond opening. If there's no such unshowable distribution (i.e. after a major opening), it's the LOWER of the two Michaels options, i.e. (1S) passed-hand-1NT would show clubs+hearts.
    1NT15-17, natural, with a useful holding in any opposition suits. Responses are the same as after a 1NT opening bid.
    2NT5-5 in the lowest two unbid suits, Unusual 2NT
    Jump to 3-level cue bidasking partner to bid 3NT if they have a stopper in this suit
    Jump to 3NTTo play, long running minor.
    4NTAcol 4NT, asking for specific aces
    5NTasking for specific kings

    RESPONSES TO OPENING 1S

    PassVery weak (0-5 points), no desire to shut out opponents.
    Double of suit overcallTake-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double of an overcall and then pull partner's response when they do take it out is non-forcing with at least a five-card suit, since an immediate bid would have been forcing. (The logic is different after 1NT openings.)
    Double of no-trump overcallPenalties
    Redouble10+, wants to double for penalties, often a misfit. During the subsequent auction, the partnership has one standard takeout double "in the bank". This is in order to distinguish between a hand that simply wants to compete (will pass and wait for partner to make a takeout double) and one with game-forcing strength (will bid directly, forcing).
    1NTUnable to make any other response, says nothing about shape
    Minimum cue bid of overcall where the partnership can still stop in part-score; i.e. below 3 of opener's suitUnassuming Cue-Bid, with trump support and intermediate points. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    New suit at 2 level after 1NT overcallNatural, non-forcing and to play, because a hand with game-going strength would have doubled. Auctions like 1S (1NT) 2C from a passed hand no longer show a weak hand with three-card trump support because that's too dangerous after the 1NT overcall, while intermediate hands will just double.
    2 of a minorGame-forcing, assumed to be 4 cards but occasionally a waiting bid.
    2C if passed hand3-card support for partner, 2-level values and no better bid available. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with clubs.
    2D if passed hand3-card support for partner, intermediate points and no better bid available. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with diamonds.
    2H if passed hand3-card support and a five-card heart suit, intermediate points. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with hearts.
    2HGame-forcing, 5 hearts
    Raise to 2Weak, with trump support. If only three, had no better bid and in particular didn't much like the look of any of the less marginal responses (i.e. 1NT).
    Raise to 2 after overcallWeak, with trump support. If only three, had no better bid.
    Raise to 2 after doubleWeak, promises no strength at all
    2NT11-12, balanced, would have raised a weak 1NT to two. Denies four-card spade support. Also promises precisely a doubleton in partner's suit if a passed-hand 2D response had been available to show intermediate strength with three-card trump support. Any continuation in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    2NT after overcallNatural, constructive, about 11-12 points. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.
    2NT after doubleIntermediate jump raise in partner's suit. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    Jump shiftStrong six-card suit, 16+ points. Still applies after any intervention except a 1NT overcall.
    Jump shift by passed hand or after 1NT overcallFit-Jump, two-suited, at least 5-4, trump support for partner. Forcing and normally shows an 8-loser hand or so, without enough strength to go to game.
    New suit response from a passed hand above 2 of opener's suit (after opponents' intervention)Whatever the same bid would have meant without the intervention, e.g. pass (pass) 1C (1S) 2H is a fit-jump in hearts, just as it would have been without the overcall.
    Jump raise4-card support, intermediate (10 points or so)
    Jump raise to 3 after interventionPre-emptive. A redouble or an Unassuming Cue Bid is the bid to show an intermediate raise.
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTstrong no-trump (i.e. balanced 15-17) with four-card trump support.
    Game raise (opponents silent)Shows shape rather than points, might be pre-emptive.
    Game raise (contested auction)To play.
    Jump cue bid after overcallSplinter
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    DEFENCE TO 1S

    Any bid in the pass-out seatA king weaker than when bid directly.
    DoubleOne of two hand types. DEFAULT ASSUMPTION: take-out, opening strength, support for unbid suits. This is a "say it once and shut up" bid that thereafter leaves all competitive decisions to partner and the doubler is not expected to bid again unless partner finds a bid that asks them to do so. To do so shows extreme strength (17+) and previous assumptions about shape no longer apply. NOTE: this bid promises proper opening values (i.e. you'd been going to open the bidding if the opponents had passed) AND support for the unbid suits. Opening a 4441 10-count "because the shape is perfect" is a violation of all that is good and will cause cancer in kittens.
    Cue bid of majorMichaels, 5-5 shape, the other major and a minor
    Suit overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level
    Jump suit overcallWeak Two, 6-10 and a 6-card suit
    Suit jump in the pass-out seat10-14 actual points (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies a four-card major side-suit, like a fourth-seat 2H opening.
    Suit jump in spades in the pass-out seat8-12 (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies four hearts, like a fourth-seat 2S opening.
    Greater jump suit overcallPre-emptive
    1NT from a passed hand (protective)Stretching with a good eleven-count and the usual transferred-king principle.
    1NT from a passed hand (non-protective)5-5 shape and a distribution that can't be shown with either Unusual 2NT or Michaels, e.g. the black suits after a diamond opening. If there's no such unshowable distribution (i.e. after a major opening), it's the LOWER of the two Michaels options, i.e. (1S) passed-hand-1NT would show clubs+hearts.
    1NT15-17, natural, with a useful holding in any opposition suits. Responses are the same as after a 1NT opening bid.
    2NT5-5 in the lowest two unbid suits, Unusual 2NT
    Jump to 3-level cue bidasking partner to bid 3NT if they have a stopper in this suit
    Jump to 3NTTo play, long running minor.
    4NTAcol 4NT, asking for specific aces
    5NTasking for specific kings

    1X OPENER'S REBID AFTER PARTNER PASSES AND THE OPPONENTS BID IN THE PROTECTIVE SEAT

    Double of a suit overcalltake-out, although partner's allowed to pass for penalties as usual, if they want.
    Double of a no-trump overcallpenalties
    Redoublemonster hand, 20+ points
    1NTstrong and to play, even though known to be unbalanced
    2NTgame-forcing, unbalanced.
    New suit at any levelnatural, even if the opposition have overcalled in it. Only one exception (see below):
    Jump to 3-level cue bidrequesting a stop for 3NT
    Any game/slamnatural, either to play or pass/correct if a second suit

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C-1D

    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.
    MajorNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, but this doesn't guarantee five clubs. Might also be 4441 with a singleton diamond.
    1NTBalanced, 12-14. Is unlikely to have a four-card major, since we open the major on a 12-14 balanced hand with a four-card major and a four-card minor. (Theoretically a 12-14 5422 hand might choose to open the minor rather than the major, but then if so it would then seem reasonable to continue with the major after 1C 1D.) Thus, since opener has also denied diamonds by failing to support them, there's an inference that the bid is probably single-suited in clubs.
    Rebid first suit5+ trumps, denies support for partner and any side suit en route. If the hand must thus be single-suited, then the bid promises 6 trumps.
    ReverseNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, reverse, normally 16+ points
    Raise4-card support
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced
    3-level jump rebidSix good trumps, normally 16+ points. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    Jump shiftNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape or 5-5 if a game-forcing 2NT rebid was available, game-forcing
    Jump raise4-card support, normally 16+ points
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter, agreeing partner's suit. If there are two splinters, e.g. 1D 1S 3H and 1D 1S 4H, then the higher one is the full-blooded game-forcing splinter and the lower one is merely a strong game invitation with reversing strength and the indicated small singleton.
    3NTto play, with a long running minor
    4-level jump rebidMinorwood
    4CMinorwood
    4DMinorwood
    Jump raise to gameTo play, shape rather than strength
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    4NTTwo-suited Blackwood for both bid suits
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTGrand Slam Force
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1C OPENER'S REBID AFTER ONE-LEVEL MAJOR SUIT RESPONSE

    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.
    1NT12-14 balanced, unlikely to hold a four-card major since we open the major when holding a 4432 balanced hand with a major and a minor.
    New suit below first suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced.
    Rebid first suit5+ trumps, denies support for partner and any side suit en route. If the hand must thus be single-suited, then the bid promises 6 trumps.
    ReverseNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, reverse, normally 16+ points
    Raise4-card support
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced
    3-level jump rebidSix good trumps, normally 16+ points. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    Jump shiftNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape or 5-5 if a game-forcing 2NT rebid was available, game-forcing
    Jump raise4-card support, normally 16+ points
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter, agreeing partner's suit. If there are two splinters, e.g. 1D 1S 3H and 1D 1S 4H, then the higher one is the full-blooded game-forcing splinter and the lower one is merely a strong game invitation with reversing strength and the indicated small singleton.
    3NTto play, with a long running minor
    4-level jump rebidMinorwood
    Jump raise to gameTo play, shape rather than strength
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    4NTTwo-suited Blackwood for both bid suits
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTGrand Slam Force
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1D OPENER'S REBID AFTER ONE-LEVEL MAJOR SUIT RESPONSE

    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.
    New suit below first suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced.
    Rebid first suit5+ trumps, denies support for partner and any side suit en route. If the hand must thus be single-suited, then the bid promises 6 trumps.
    3-level jump rebidSix good trumps, normally 16+ points. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    4-level jump rebidMinorwood
    ReverseNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, reverse, normally 16+ points
    Jump shiftNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape or 5-5 if a game-forcing 2NT rebid was available, game-forcing
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter, agreeing partner's suit. If there are two splinters, e.g. 1D 1S 3H and 1D 1S 4H, then the higher one is the full-blooded game-forcing splinter and the lower one is merely a strong game invitation with reversing strength and the indicated small singleton.
    Raise4-card support
    Jump raise4-card support, normally 16+ points
    Jump raise to gameTo play, shape rather than strength
    1NT12-14 balanced. There's also a weak inference available that the hand might well be single-suited in diamonds, since a 12-14 balanced hand that's 4-4 in a major and a minor will open the major, while 1C is a more flexible opening bid than 1D if holding two equivalent minor suits... although this isn't a firm rule and an opening bid of either minor in these circumstances is acceptable. Nevertheless a 1C opening is in general better it because allows partner more room and the Inverted Minor responses are more informative.
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced
    3NTto play, with a long running minor
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    4NTTwo-suited Blackwood for both bid suits
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTGrand Slam Force
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1H-1S

    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.
    1NT12-14 balanced, denies spades
    2 of minorNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape
    Rebid6 hearts, single-suited
    Raise4 spades, limit raise
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced
    3 of minorNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), game-forcing, 5-4 shape
    Jump rebid, e.g. 1H 1S 3HStrong (normally 16+) and single-suited, 6 hearts. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Jump raise, e.g. 1H 1S 3Sstrong (normally 16+), 5 hearts and 4 spades
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTBased on a long, solid suit, i.e. akin to the equivalent bid had the opening bid instead been one of a minor. Shows a hand with lots of tricks off the top (seven or eight if partner is weak). Any continuation except four of opener's suit is investigating slam.
    4 of minorsplinter
    Jump raise to gameTo play, shape rather than strength
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    4NTRKC Blackwood for spades
    5 of majorinviting slam, asking about trump quality
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTGrand Slam Force
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1D OPENER'S REBID AFTER A GAME-FORCING TWO-OVER-ONE 2C RESPONSE

  • Quite a lot of jump responses promise a trump fit with partner, including some which one might not expect to in a non-game-forcing auction.

  • pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    redoubleNot even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    Raise4-card support
    2NT12-14, natural, showing either (a) a balanced hand with no four-card major, since we open the major on 12-14 balanced hands with a major and a minor, or (b) a 4441 hand with a singleton club. Thus the bid shows either both majors or neither! (Theoretically a 12-14 5422 hand might decide to open the five-card minor instead of the four-card major and then still have a blameless-looking no-trump rebid available, but if that's the case then in this specific sequence such a hand should rebid the minor for clarity. It makes it possible for responder to ascertain the situation with confidence after 1D 2C 2NT.) This is the only uncontested auction in which when a no-trump rebid is allowed on a 4441 hand, since we never rebid 1NT with a singleton major (too dangerous) and there are no rebid problems if the auction begins 1C 1D.
    Jump rebidReversing strength, single-suited with a good six-card suit and denying support for partner.
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter in support of partner's suit, purely shape-showing, neither confirms nor denies extra high-card strength.
    3NTshowing a long solid diamond suit
    Rebidnatural, unbalanced
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced
    ReverseNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), reversing strength, unbalanced
    Jump raiseMinorwood
    4-level rebidMinorwood
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NT5-card support, 4 Key Cards.
    Jump raise to 5Showing a trump fit (obviously) and all the key cards, i.e. all four aces and the king of trumps, which is already 19 points without even considering the rest of the hand. The advantage of this bid is that it bypasses a Blackwood bid that neither partner would have wanted to say. Your hand obviously has no interest in asking for key cards, while conversely your partner would have probably been nervous of doing so, having none himself. Further continuations (if any) are cue-bids, looking for a grand slam.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1H/1S OPENER'S REBID AFTER A GAME-FORCING TWO-OVER-ONE MINOR-SUIT RESPONSE

  • Quite a lot of jump responses promise a trump fit with partner, including some which one might not expect to in a non-game-forcing auction.

  • pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    redoubleNot even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    RebidNatural, denies en route second suit.
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced.
    ReverseNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), reversing strength, unbalanced.
    Raise4-card support
    2NT12-14 balanced. If the opening bid was 1S then opener is unlikely to have hearts as well, because we open 1H on a 12-14 4432 with both majors.
    Jump rebidReversing strength, single-suited with a good six-card suit and denying support for partner.
    Jump raiseMinorwood
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter in support of partner's suit, purely shape-showing, neither confirms nor denies extra high-card strength.
    3NTBased on a long, solid suit, i.e. akin to the equivalent bid had the opening bid instead been one of a minor. Shows a hand with lots of tricks off the top (seven or eight if partner is weak). Any continuation except four of opener's suit is investigating slam.
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NT5-card support, 4 Key Cards. It's absolutely not Blackwood, since there's unlikely to be any such need for precipitate action. With a hand that wants to bid Blackwood, you'll just have to make a quiet waiting bid and see what partner does next.
    Jump raise to 5Showing a trump fit (obviously) and all the key cards, i.e. all four aces and the king of trumps, which is already 19 points without even considering the rest of the hand. The advantage of this bid is that it bypasses a Blackwood bid that neither partner would have wanted to say. Your hand obviously has no interest in asking for key cards, while conversely your partner would have probably been nervous of doing so, having none himself. Further continuations (if any) are cue-bids, looking for a grand slam.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1S OPENER'S REBID AFTER A GAME-FORCING TWO-OVER-ONE 2H RESPONSE

  • Quite a lot of jump responses promise a trump fit with partner, including some which one might not expect to in a non-game-forcing auction.

  • pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    redoubleNot even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    RebidNatural, unbalanced with no more than two hearts. Doesn't necessarily deny a second suit, because to bid either 3C or 3D would have been a reverse.
    2NT12-14 balanced, doubleton heart
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), reversing strength, 5-4 in spades and the minor.
    RaiseAt least 3-card heart support.
    Jump rebidReversing strength, single-suited with a good six-card suit and denying support for partner.
    Jump raise5-5 in the majors but not reversing strength, i.e. 11-15 points
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter in support of partner's suit, purely shape-showing, neither confirms nor denies extra high-card strength.
    3NTBased on a long, solid suit, i.e. akin to the equivalent bid had the opening bid instead been one of a minor. Shows a hand with lots of tricks off the top (seven or eight if partner is weak). Any continuation except four of opener's suit is investigating slam.
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTRKC Blackwood, agreeing hearts.
    Jump raise to 5Showing a trump fit (obviously) and all the key cards, i.e. all four aces and the king of trumps, which is already 19 points without even considering the rest of the hand. The advantage of this bid is that it bypasses a Blackwood bid that neither partner would have wanted to say. Your hand obviously has no interest in asking for key cards, while conversely your partner would have probably been nervous of doing so, having none himself. Further continuations (if any) are cue-bids, looking for a grand slam.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    UNIVERSAL BIDS AFTER A TWO-OVER-ONE RESPONSE

    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    redoubleNot even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    2NT12-14 balanced
    Raise4-card support
    Jump rebidReversing strength, single-suited with a good six-card suit and denying support for partner.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter in support of partner's suit, purely shape-showing, neither confirms nor denies extra high-card strength.
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    Jump raise to 5Showing a trump fit (obviously) and all the key cards, i.e. all four aces and the king of trumps, which is already 19 points without even considering the rest of the hand. The advantage of this bid is that it bypasses a Blackwood bid that neither partner would have wanted to say. Your hand obviously has no interest in asking for key cards, while conversely your partner would have probably been nervous of doing so, having none himself. Further continuations (if any) are cue-bids, looking for a grand slam.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER A PASSED-HAND 2C, SHOWING A WEAK HAND WITH THREE-CARD SUPPORT FOR A MAJOR

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Agreed suit, any level except 5to play
    New suitnatural and forcing, to be assumed to be a trial bid
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitsplinter
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced. It's not to play, because a weak no-trump can't seriously want to play in 2NT opposite a known bad hand. Better just to sign off in the agreed trump suit as quickly as possible and hope that the opponents don't realise the situation.
    3NTSerious 3NT
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    5-level rebidquantitative invitation to 6 of suit
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER A PASSED-HAND 2D, SHOWING AN INTERMEDIATE HAND WITH THREE-CARD SUPPORT FOR A MAJOR

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    New suitnatural and forcing, to be assumed to be a trial bid
    2NTGame-invitational, showing an upper-range weak no trump with only four of the bid suit.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitsplinter
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTto play
    Agreed suit, any level except 5to play
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    5-level rebidquantitative invitation to 6 of suit
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1D-2C FROM A PASSED HAND (4+ clubs and exactly three diamonds, weak)

    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.
    any minor not at 4-levelto play
    2 of a majornatural and forcing, to be assumed to be trial bid
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced. It's not to play, because a weak no-trump can't seriously want to play in 2NT opposite a known bad hand. Better just to sign off in the agreed trump suit as quickly as possible and hope that the opponents don't realise the situation.
    3 of a majorsplinter
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTto play, with a long running diamond suit
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    4NTExclusion Blackwood, the void suit being clubs
    4CTwo-Suited Blackwood for the minors
    4DMinorwood for diamonds
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C-1NT, SHOWING A CLUB FIT

    pass after doubleA balanced 12-14 point hand with poor trumps and a preference for playing in 1NT rather than the club contract.
    redoubleShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.
    2CTo play, not promising any additional length since the partnership has a known club fit.
    2DNatural reverse, showing 5-4 in the minors.
    2 of a majorNatural reverse, showing a second suit and 5-4 shape. (Doesn't promise a five-card major, even though responder's denied a four-card major.)
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced
    3CTo play.
    New suit at 3 levelGame-forcing splinter, agreeing clubs.
    3NTto play
    4CMinorwood
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5Cto play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1D-1NT

    pass after doubleNatural, nothing to say.
    redoubleStrong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.
    2CClub fit, natural
    Rebid6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.
    2HNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2SNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced.
    3CClub fit, reversing strength
    Jump rebidGood 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    Jump shift above reverseClub fit, game-forcing splinter
    3NTTo play, with either: (a) a long running diamond suit, or (b) an extremely strong 4441 with a singleton club and no other rebid.
    4 of a minorMinorwood
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5Cto play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1H-1NT

    pass after doubleNatural, nothing to say.
    redoubleStrong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), shows five of first-bid major and four of second suit.
    Rebid6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.
    2Snatural, unbalanced, reversing strength (normally 16+)
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced.
    Jump rebidGood 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    3 of a minorgame-forcing, 5+ hearts and 4+ of second suit, or 5-5 if a game-forcing 2NT rebid was available
    Jump shift above reverseAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    3NTBased on a long, solid suit, i.e. akin to the equivalent bid had the opening bid instead been one of a minor. Shows a hand with lots of tricks off the top (seven or eight if partner is weak). Any continuation except four of opener's suit is investigating slam.
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5-level rebidquantitative invitation to 6 of suit
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1S-1NT

    pass after doubleNatural, nothing to say.
    redoubleStrong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), shows five of first-bid major and four of second suit.
    Rebid6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced.
    Jump rebidGood 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    3NTBased on a long, solid suit, i.e. akin to the equivalent bid had the opening bid instead been one of a minor. Shows a hand with lots of tricks off the top (seven or eight if partner is weak). Any continuation except four of opener's suit is investigating slam.
    4 of a new suitAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5-level rebidquantitative invitation to 6 of suit
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1C (overcall) 1NT 2C

    Cue bidIntermediate raise in clubs
    New suitNatural if a two-level cue bid was available (which might suggest that the earlier 1NT was a misbid), or else an intermediate raise in clubs.
    2NTNatural, 11-12 points (or an upgraded ten). Shows a hand that had the values but not the shape for an immediate 2NT response.
    3CTo play if a conventional bid was available to show an intermediate raise in clubs, or else if not then it's an intermediate raise in clubs.
    Jump shiftGame-forcing, shows feature.
    3NTTo play.
    4CMinorwood.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1D-1NT-2D

    passTo play.
    2 of a majorIntermediate raise in diamonds. Can't be natural.
    2NTNatural, intermediate and invitational.
    3CTo play, 6+ clubs.
    3DPre-emptive and to play, unless the "2H/S to show an intermediate raise" option has been taken away by the opponents' intervention.
    3HSplinter, agreeing diamonds. The only way now to stop in part-score is a relay bid of 3S, asking responder to bid 4C.
    3SSplinter, game-forcing.
    3NTTo play
    4 of minorMinorwood in that suit
    4 of majorExclusion Blackwood

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1H-1NT-2H

    passTo play.
    2SIntermediate raise in hearts. Can't be natural.
    2NTNatural, intermediate and invitational. Unlikely to have more than a doubleton in opener's suit.
    3 of minorTo play, with a long suit. Thinks this will play better than opener's known six-card suit.
    3HPre-emptive and to play, unless the conventional bid to show an intermediate raise has been taken away by opposition intervention.
    3SSplinter, agreeing hearts.
    3NTTo play.
    4 of minorSplinter, agreeing hearts.
    4HTo play.
    4NTRKC Blackwood.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1C (major suit overcall) 1NT 2D

    2-level cue bidGame-forcing, agrees clubs.
    2 of other majorGame-forcing in one or both of partner's suits. Opener can relay with the next bid up to ask which.
    2NTTo play, weak.
    3C, 3DTo play, unless the conventional bid to show an intermediate raise has been taken away by opposition intervention, in which case it's an intermediate raise.
    3 of either major, even if it's a cue bidGame-forcing and natural, denying four cards in either minor. Not really expecting to play there; it's just a shape-showing bid.
    3NTTo play.
    4 of a minorMinorwood
    5 of a minorTo play, with a good hand, but no key cards.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1C (overcall) 1NT 2H

    2SGame-forcing, agrees clubs. Can't be natural.
    2NTTo play, weak.
    3CTo play, unless the conventional bid to show an intermediate raise has been taken away by opposition intervention, in which case it's an intermediate raise.
    Cue bidGame-forcing, agrees clubs.
    3DGame-forcing, natural (4-card suit) unless cue bid.
    3HGame-forcing, but no clear bid. Can't be natural, but shows useful heart support. A bit like fourth suit forcing when there isn't a fourth suit.
    3S, 4DSplinter agreeing spades (ludicrous though this is in the context of the auction)
    3NTTo play.
    4CMinorwood
    4HTo play
    4NTRKC Blackwood for hearts
    5CTo play, with a good hand, but no key cards.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1C (overcall) 1NT 2S

    2NTTo play, weak.
    3CTo play.
    Cue bidGame-forcing, agrees clubs.
    3DGame-forcing, natural (4-card suit) unless it's a cue bid.
    3HGame-forcing, agrees clubs. Can't be natural, but shows useful heart feature unless it's a cue bid.
    3SGame-forcing, but no clear bid. Can't be natural, but shows useful partial spade support. A bit like fourth suit forcing when there isn't a fourth suit.
    3NTTo play.
    4CMinorwood
    4D, 4HSplinter agreeing spades (ludicrous though this is in the context of the auction)
    4STo play
    4NTRKC Blackwood for spades
    5CTo play, with a good hand, but no key cards.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1D-1NT-2H

    2SIntermediate raise in diamonds. Can't be natural after 1D-1NT, which denied a major.
    2NTTo play, weak.
    3CTo play.
    3DFalse preference to diamonds, to play. May or may not indicate genuine preference. Doesn't guarantee a trump fit, but might instead merely be choosing the longer of opener's two suits.
    3HGame-forcing, but no clear bid. Can't be natural after 1D-1NT (denying hearts), so suggests a hand that doesn't want to say no-trumps (most of its points are in partner's suits) but doesn't have enough length to agree either of partner's suits as trumps. A bit like fourth suit forcing when there isn't a fourth suit.
    3SSplinter, game-forcing, agreeing diamonds.
    3NTTo play.
    4CSplinter, game-forcing, agreeing diamonds.
    4DMinorwood
    4NTRKC Blackwood

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1D-1NT-2S

    2NTTo play, weak.
    3CTo play.
    3DFalse preference to diamonds, to play. May or may not indicate genuine preference. Doesn't guarantee a trump fit, but might instead merely be choosing the longer of opener's two suits.
    3HGame-forcing, agrees diamonds (assuming partner has five). Can't be natural after 1D-1NT (denying hearts).
    3SGame-forcing, but no clear bid. Can't be natural after 1D-1NT (denying spades), so suggests a hand that doesn't want to say no-trumps (most of its points are in partner's suits) but doesn't have enough length to agree either of partner's suits as trumps. A bit like fourth suit forcing when there isn't a fourth suit.
    3NTTo play.
    4CSplinter, game-forcing, agreeing diamonds.
    4DMinorwood
    4NTRKC Blackwood

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1H-1NT-2S

    2NTTo play, weak.
    3 of minorTo play.
    3HFalse preference to hearts, to play. May or may not indicate genuine preference. Doesn't guarantee a trump fit, but might instead merely be choosing the longer of opener's two suits.
    3SGame-forcing, but no clear bid. Can't be natural after 1H-1NT (denying spades), so suggests a hand that doesn't want to say no-trumps (most of its points are in partner's suits) but doesn't have enough length to agree either of partner's suits as trumps. A bit like fourth suit forcing when there isn't a fourth suit.
    3NTTo play.
    4 of minorSplinter, agreeing hearts.
    4 of majorto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1S-1NT-2S

    passTo play.
    2NT10-12 points or so, game-invitational. Unlikely to have more than a small doubleton in opener's suit.
    3 of new suitTo play, with a long suit. Thinks this will play better than opener's known six-card suit.
    3SGame-invitational, intermediate strength.
    3NTTo play.
    Jump shiftSplinter, three-card trump support.
    4STo play.
    4NTRKC Blackwood. Maybe he'd miscounted his points or something?
    5 of new suitExclusion Blackwood

    1C OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 7.5-10 CONSTRUCTIVE 1NT RESPONSE OVER AN OPPOSITION OVERCALL

    pass after doubleNatural, nothing to say.
    redoubleStrong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties
    2Cnatural
    2D, 2H, 2SNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2NTInvitational to 3NT. Game-forcing would have been more consistent with the rest of the system, mind you.
    New suit at 3 levelAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    3NTto play
    4CMinorwood
    New suit at 4 levelExclusion Blackwood
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5CGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    New suit at 5 levelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1D OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 7.5-10 CONSTRUCTIVE 1NT RESPONSE OVER AN OPPOSITION OVERCALL

    pass after doubleNatural, nothing to say.
    redoubleStrong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.
    2Cnatural, unbalanced
    Rebid6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.
    2HNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2SNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2NTInvitational to 3NT. Game-forcing would have been more consistent with the rest of the system, mind you.
    3CClub fit, reversing strength
    Jump rebidGood 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    Jump shift above reverseAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    3NTTo play, with either: (a) a long running diamond suit, or (b) an extremely strong 4441 with a singleton club and no other rebid.
    4 of a minorMinorwood
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5Cto play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1H OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 7.5-10 CONSTRUCTIVE 1NT RESPONSE OVER THE OPPONENTS' 1S OVERCALL

    pass after doubleNatural, nothing to say.
    redoubleStrong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.
    New suitNatural, shows five of first-bid major and four of second suit.
    Rebid6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.
    2SNatural with reversing strength (even though the opposition have overcalled in the suit), shows five of first-bid major and four of second suit.
    2NTInvitational to 3NT. Game-forcing would have been more consistent with the rest of the system, mind you.
    Jump rebidGood 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    3 of a minorgame-forcing, 5+ hearts and 4+ of second suit, or 5-5 if a game-forcing 2NT rebid was available
    3SAuto-splinter, unilaterally agreeing opener's hearts and showing a singleton spade.
    Jump shift above reverseAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    3NTto play
    Game-level rebidto play
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5-level rebidquantitative invitation to 6 of suit
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1D-1NT (SINGLE-SUITED IN CLUBS) AND A REBID FROM OPENER OF 2C (SHOWS CLUB FIT)

    PassNot interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.
    RedoubleShows a maximum 1NT response (intermediate strength) and an interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.
    2DDouble fit in both minors, assuming opener has five diamonds, but weak.
    2 of a majorIntermediate raise in clubs. Can't be natural, because responder's already denied having a major with the initial 1NT response.
    2NTIntermediate, natural.
    3CTo play and pre-emptive, because there's another bid available to show an intermediate raise in clubs (2 of a major)
    3DIntermediate raise and a double fit in both minors, assuming opener has five diamonds. Any continuation is game-forcing.
    3HSplinter, agreeing diamonds. The only option now for stopping in part-score is a relay bid of 3S, asking responder to bid 4C.
    3SSplinter, game-forcing.
    3NTTo play
    4CMinorwood
    4DTwo-Suited Minorwood
    4 of a majorExclusion Blackwood in clubs

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1C-1NT AND A 2-LEVEL GAME TRY

    raise diamondnatural
    minimum bid of majorshows feature
    2NT, 3Cto play
    Jump shiftcan't be a splinter after 1C-1NT, so accepts the invitation and shows a feature
    3NTto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER OPENER HAS SHOWN A FIT WITH RESPONDER'S MINOR

    Any bid in agreed suitto play and possibly pre-emptive, unless Minorwood
    New suit up to 3-levelForward-going. Might be a probe for 3NT, showing a feature, or might sometimes be natural.
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    New suit at 4-levelCue bid, since the Serious 3NT isn't available to indicate a desire to cue-bid when the agreed trump suit is a minor.
    4 of agreed suitMinorwood
    2NTnatural, balanced 11-12
    3NTto play
    4NTTwo-Suited Blackwood
    Partner's first-bid suitnatural, game-forcing
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER OPENER SHOWS A FIT WITH RESPONDER'S MAJOR

    Any bid in agreed suitto play and possibly pre-emptive
    2NTquantitative game invitation
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTSerious 3NT
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    Partner's first-bid suitnatural, game-forcing
    New suitTrial bid, even at the four-level. A hand that wants to cue bid can go via the Serious 3NT.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER STRONG SINGLE-SUITED JUMP SHIFT

    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    redoubleNot even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    Rebidnatural, denies trump support
    Raisetrump fit.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Jump raiseTrump fit, reversing strength. If four of a minor, Minorwood.
    Jump rebidBig six-card suit, reversing strength.
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, denies trump support
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelsplinter
    2NT12-14 balanced, no support for partner's suit
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    3NTto play, if jump then a void in partner's suit
    4NTBlackwood, for responder's suit if major
    Jump raise to 54-card support for partner in an unbalanced hand, but without any key cards or small singletons.
    5-level rebidCompletely solid trump suit, no losers even opposite a void. Responder's next bid is RKC Blackwood response, showing Key Cards.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER FIT-JUMP IN SUPPORT OF MAJOR

    PassProhibited response; the fit-jump is a forcing bid.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Agreed suit, any level except 5to play
    Raise fit-jump major3-card support, slam try
    Raise fit-jump minorGame-forcing, not Minorwood
    2NTforcing relay
    3NTSerious 3NT
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    New suitTrial bid, even at the 4-level. A hand that wants to cue bid can go via the Serious 3NT.
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitsplinter
    5-level rebidquantitative invitation to 6 of suit
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER FIT-JUMP IN SUPPORT OF MINOR

    PassProhibited response; the fit-jump is a forcing bid.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Agreed suit, 4-levelMinorwood
    Agreed suit, any other levelto play
    Raise fit-jump major3-card support
    Raise fit-jump minor to 3game try, showing supporting values
    Raise fit-jump minor to 4Minorwood (two-suited)
    2NTforcing relay
    3NTto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood for partner's major
    New suit up to 3-levelA probe for 3NT, showing a feature.
    New suit at 4-levelCue bid, since there's no Serious 3NT available to indicate a desire to cue-bid as there would be if the agreed suit was a major.
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitsplinter
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER FIT-JUMP AND 2NT RELAY FROM OPENER

    Minimum response (including "pass" after intervention)bad suits
    +1bad side suit, good trumps
    +2good side suit, bad trumps
    +3good suits
    Higher bid at splinter levelSplinter, accepting invitation and showing a singleton.
    Jump to 4 in either of the partnership's suits6-card suit
    Jump shift at Blackwood levelExclusion Blackwood

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1H (1S) 1NT AND A 2C/2D REBID FROM OPENER

    passWeak, with a strong preference for opener's second suit over hearts.
    2DTo play
    2HFalse preference to hearts, to play. May or may not indicate genuine preference. Doesn't guarantee a trump fit, but might instead merely be choosing the longer of opener's two suits.
    2SIntermediate raise in either or both of partner's suits. Opener can ask which with a relay of 2NT.
    2NTNatural, 11-12 points (or an upgraded ten). Denies a fit in either of partner's suits.
    3SNot a splinter after the natural 1NT bid, but instead shows a golden hand with a double fit.
    3NTTo play
    4 of a minorMinorwood in that suit. Can't be a splinter after the natural 1NT bid.
    New suit (minor)6-card suit, weak
    Raise either of partner's suits to the three levelPre-emptive and to play, unless the "2S to show an intermediate raise" option has been taken away by the opponents' intervention.
    Jump shift to 3 of an unbid minor6-card suit, 10-ish points, invitational. Non-forcing.
    Raise either suit to gameShapely, to play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1H 1NT AND A 2C/2D REBID FROM OPENER

    passWeak, with a strong preference for opener's second suit over hearts.
    New suit (minor)6-card suit, weak
    2HFalse preference to hearts, to play. May or may not indicate genuine preference. Doesn't guarantee a trump fit, but might instead merely be choosing the longer of opener's two suits.
    2SIntermediate raise in either or both of partner's suits. Opener can ask which with a relay of 2NT.
    2NTNatural, 11-12 points (or an upgraded ten). Shows a hand that had the values but not the shape for an immediate 2NT response.
    Raise either of partner's suits to the three levelPre-emptive and to play, unless the "2S to show an intermediate raise" option has been taken away by the opponents' intervention.
    Jump shift to 3 of an unbid minor6-card suit, 10-ish points, invitational. Non-forcing.
    3SGame-forcing splinter in either of partner's suits. Opener can ask which it is with a relay of 4C (if that wasn't their second suit) or 3NT (if it was, which unfortunately takes away the natural 3NT to play that's still possible if 4C is the relay).
    3NTTo play
    4 of partner's minorMinorwood
    4 of other minorSplinter in hearts.
    Raise either suit to gameShapely, to play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1S-1NT AND A CHEAP REBID FROM OPENER, e.g. 1S 1NT 2C

    passWeak, with a strong preference for opener's second suit over spades.
    2SFalse preference to spades, to play. May or may not indicate genuine preference. Doesn't guarantee a trump fit, but might instead merely be choosing the longer of opener's two suits.
    2NTNatural, 11-12 points (or an upgraded ten). Shows a hand that had the values but not the shape for an immediate 2NT response.
    Raise second suitFour-card support. Ostensibly showing 10-ish points, but might be stretching slightly to keep the bidding alive since partner's strength is currently unlimited.
    New suit6-card suit, weak
    Jump shift in new suit6-card suit, 10-ish points, invitational. Non-forcing.
    3SIntermediate spade raise, 10-ish points. Not pre-emptive unless there was an alternative bid available to show an intermediate raise, e.g. cue-bidding an opponent's overcall.
    3NTTo play
    4 of new minorSplinter, agreeing spades.
    Raise partner's minor to fourMinorwood
    Raise either suit to gameShapely, to play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1X-1NT AND A REVERSE FROM OPENER, e.g. 1D 1NT 2H

  • mostly as for ordinary rebids, except:

  • 2NTto play, weak
    3NTto play

    1C/D OPENER'S REBID AFTER A WEAK SINGLE RAISE FROM RESPONDER

    pass after doubleNot interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.
    redoubleShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.
    New suittrial bid
    Raise100% pre-emptive, to play
    2NTgame-forcing
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitsplinter
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Raise to 4 (jump)Minorwood
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    Raise to 5+to play, possibly pre-emptive
    3NTto play, with a long running minor
    4NTShows a very strong hand that is confident of making at least game in the agreed suit and is in no way whatsoever just being pre-emptive. Partner is allowed to have a bash at slam with significant extras, while of course if the opposition intervene then they'll almost certainly be going for a big number.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1H/S OPENER'S REBID AFTER A WEAK SINGLE RAISE FROM RESPONDER

    pass after doubleNot interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.
    redoubleShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.
    Raise100% pre-emptive, to play
    Jump raiseto play
    New suittrial bid
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitsplinter
    2NTgame-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTSerious 3NT
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1H/S OPENER'S REBID AFTER AN INTERMEDIATE JUMP RAISE FROM RESPONDER

    pass after doubleDoesn't show anything in particular. Depending on vulnerability and circumstances, might either be a weak no-trump with no higher ambitions or a strong hand that's waiting with interest to see what the opponents do next.
    redoubleShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.
    New suitTrial bid inviting slam and not a cue bid, even at the four level, if a Serious 3NT has been bypassed. Quite likely to be a natural suit. Responder raising the new suit is natural and encouraging with a double fit and a useful holding in the second suit. Other continuations have their expected meaning (Serious 3NT, cue bid, Blackwood, etc.)
    3NTSerious 3NT
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1M-2M-2NT (game-forcing)

    3-level new suituseful side-suit
    Rebid majordenies ability to make a more informative response
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitsplinter
    3NTbalanced, 3-card support
    4 of majorbalanced, 5-card support
    Jump shift above splinterExclusion Blackwood

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER PUDDING RAISE OF MAJOR

    4 of bid suitto play
    New suit below agreed trump suitcue-bid
    New suit above agreed trump suitExclusion Blackwood
    5 of bid suitQuantitative, inviting slam in trumps
    4NTQuantitative, inviting slam in no-trumps. A hand that wants to bid RKCB should start with a cue-bid (even if they have to make one up) and then say 4NT on the following round.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTQuantitative, inviting grand slam in no-trumps
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C 3NT (SEMI-PUDDING)

    4CMinorwood
    4 of another suitExclusion Blackwood
    4NTQuantitative, inviting slam in no-trumps.
    5Cto play
    5 of another suitComplete two-suiter
    5NTQuantitative, inviting grand slam in no-trumps
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1D 3NT (SEMI-PUDDING)

    4CRequest to start cue-bidding first and second round controls, not itself a cue-bid. Opener might be hoping to be able to ask for key cards later with 4NT (RKC Blackwood) and if so has a hand capable of coping with a 5H/5S response.
    4DMinorwood
    4NTQuantitative, inviting slam in no-trumps.
    New suit between 4D and 5DExclusion Blackwood
    5Dto play
    5 of a majorComplete two-suiter
    5NTQuantitative, inviting grand slam in no-trumps
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER THREE BIDS OF THREE DIFFERENT SUITS

    passWeak, with a strong preference for opener's second suit over their first one.
    No-TrumpsNatural, shape-showing. Denies a fit with partner's suits.
    1Snatural, four spades
    1NTnatural, up to 10 points. Denies a trump fit with either of partner's suits and shows a hand that thinks no-trumps is likely to be the best contract.
    Rebid own suitSix-card suit, non-forcing.
    2NT11-12 points, natural.
    3NTto play.
    Opener's first suitPreference to first suit. Doesn't guarantee a trump fit, but might instead merely be choosing from opener's two suits, i.e. false preference.
    Raise opener's second suitFour-card support. Ostensibly showing 10-ish points, but might be stretching slightly to keep the bidding alive since partner's strength is currently unlimited.
    Jump in opener's first suitGenuine trump support, intermediate strength.
    Jump rebid of own suitGood six-card suit, game-forcing.
    4 of known minor (jump)Minorwood
    4th suit: 2/3-levelFourth Suit Forcing, always game-forcing. This denies an obvious next bid, so for instance denies four-card support for partner except when in addition holding extra values and making a slam try, e.g. 1S 2D 2H 3C 3NT 4H.
    4th suit: 4-leveladvance cue-bid agreeing partner's LAST-bid suit
    4th suit: jump at splinter levelsplinter for partner's FIRST-bid suit. NOTE: 1C 1D 1H 2S isn't a splinter, but merely the cheapest available Fourth Suit Forcing bid, because 1C 1D 1H 1S is natural.
    4th suit: jump at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood for partner's FIRST-bid suit
    4th suit: jump at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter, with voids in both of opener's suits.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER THREE BIDS OF THREE DIFFERENT SUITS, OPENER HAVING REVERSED

    passPROHIBITED
    Opener's first suitPreference to first suit. Doesn't guarantee a trump fit, but might sometimes merely be choosing from opener's two suits, i.e. false preference, on a hand that's not allowed to pass and has no attractive rebid.
    No-TrumpsNatural. Denies a fit with partner's suits and thinks no-trumps is likely to be the best contract. 2NT doesn't promise strength and can be passed, while 3NT is to play.
    Raise opener's second suitFour-card support.
    Jump in opener's first suitGenuine trump support, game-forcing.
    Rebid own suitSix-card suit, non-forcing.
    Jump rebid of own suitGood six-card suit, game-forcing.
    4 of known minor (jump)Minorwood
    4th suit: 2/3-levelFourth Suit Forcing, always game-forcing. This denies an obvious next bid, so for instance denies four-card support for partner except when in addition holding extra values and making a slam try, e.g. 1S 2D 2H 3C 3NT 4H.
    4th suit: 4-leveladvance cue-bid agreeing partner's LAST-bid suit
    4th suit: jump at splinter levelsplinter for partner's FIRST-bid suit. NOTE: 1C 1D 1H 2S isn't a splinter, but merely the cheapest available Fourth Suit Forcing bid, because 1C 1D 1H 1S is natural.
    4th suit: jump at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood for partner's FIRST-bid suit
    4th suit: jump at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter, with voids in both of opener's suits.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER THREE BIDS OF THREE DIFFERENT SUITS, GAME-FORCING

    passUnthinkable
    No-TrumpsNatural, with no point limit since this is a game-forcing auction. A 2NT bid in this sequence might well have considerable strength in reserve, for instance, and simply describing its shape in order that partner might continue by doing the same. Denies a fit with partner's suits.
    Opener's first suitGenuine trump support.
    Raise opener's second suitFour-card support.
    Rebid own suitsix-card suit.
    Jump to 3NT5-5 in the two suits partner doesn't have, warning of a misfit. Can't merely be a balanced hand without a trump fit (the natural meaning) because such a hand would have bid 2NT instead.
    Jump in either of opener's suits5-5 shape in the two suits bid by responder, unless the bid's Minorwood in which case it's merely agreeing trumps and asking about key cards. The underlying principle is that there's no need to jump in a game-forcing situation, except to convey a specific message.
    Jump rebid of own suitCompletely solid suit, good for trumps in a grand slam opposite a void. If jumping to four of a minor, then Minorwood.
    4 of known minor (jump)Minorwood
    4th suit: 2/3-levelFourth Suit Forcing, always game-forcing. This denies an obvious next bid, so for instance denies four-card support for partner except when in addition holding extra values and making a slam try, e.g. 1S 2D 2H 3C 3NT 4H.
    4th suit: 4-leveladvance cue-bid agreeing partner's LAST-bid suit
    4th suit: jump at splinter levelsplinter for partner's FIRST-bid suit. NOTE: 1C 1D 1H 2S isn't a splinter, but merely the cheapest available Fourth Suit Forcing bid, because 1C 1D 1H 1S is natural.
    4th suit: jump at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood for partner's FIRST-bid suit
    4th suit: jump at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter, with voids in both of opener's suits.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER THREE BIDS OF THREE DIFFERENT SUITS, OPENER MASSIVE

    passUnthinkable
    Opener's first suitPreference to first suit. Doesn't guarantee a trump fit, but might sometimes merely be choosing from opener's two suits, i.e. false preference, on a hand that's not allowed to pass and has no attractive rebid.
    Raise opener's second suitFour-card support.
    Rebid own suitSix-card suit.
    Jump rebid of own suitCompletely solid six-card suit
    3NTto play.
    Raise partner's minor to fourNatural, not Minorwood. Opener's Minorwood continuation is, as usual, the cheapest next suit.
    Jump in opener's first suitGenuine trump support, slam-invitational.
    Jump rebid of own suitCompletely solid suit, good for trumps in a grand slam opposite a void. This isn't Minorwood.
    4 of known minor (jump)Minorwood
    4th suit: 2/3-levelFourth Suit Forcing, always game-forcing. This denies an obvious next bid, so for instance denies four-card support for partner except when in addition holding extra values and making a slam try, e.g. 1S 2D 2H 3C 3NT 4H.
    4th suit: 4-leveladvance cue-bid agreeing partner's LAST-bid suit
    4th suit: jump at splinter levelsplinter for partner's FIRST-bid suit. NOTE: 1C 1D 1H 2S isn't a splinter, but merely the cheapest available Fourth Suit Forcing bid, because 1C 1D 1H 1S is natural.
    4th suit: jump at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood for partner's FIRST-bid suit
    4th suit: jump at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter, with voids in both of opener's suits.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C-2C INVERTED MINOR RAISE

  • * immediate new suit by opener at three-level is game-forcing
  • * new suit by responder above 3C is game-forcing
  • * unless jumping, opener's new suit rebid is natural and a subsequent suit is a singleton

  • pass after doubleNot interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.
    redoubleShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.
    2 suitNatural and shape-showing, second suit. If later rebid, shows a five-card suit.
    2NTMaximum weak no-trump, doesn't deny a 4-card major
    raise to 3To play, single-suited
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitSplinter, showing game-forcing values and no interest in exploring major-suit fits.
    3NTTo play, with a good balanced 12-14, no four-card major and 5+ of the bid suit
    raise to 4Minorwood
    raise to game or slamTo play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1D-2D INVERTED MINOR RAISE

  • * immediate new suit by opener at three-level is game-forcing
  • * new suit by responder above 3D is game-forcing
  • * unless jumping, opener's new suit rebid is natural and a subsequent suit is a singleton

  • pass after doubleNot interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.
    redoubleShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.
    2 suitNatural and shape-showing, second suit. If later rebid, shows a five-card suit.
    2NTMaximum weak no-trump, doesn't deny a 4-card major
    3CGame-forcing, 5-4 in minors
    raise to 3To play, denying a four-card major
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitSplinter, showing game-forcing values and no interest in exploring major-suit fits.
    3NTTo play, with a good balanced 12-14, no four-card major and 5+ of the bid suit
    raise to 4Minorwood
    raise to game or slamTo play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1m-2m-3m (INVERTED MINORS)

    new suitShows a feature, might be a probe for 3NT. Doesn't have to be a four-card suit, because only opener is allowed to explore alternative trump denominations in an Inverted Minor auction.
    3NTto play
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    4 of agreed suitMinorwood
    5+ of agreed suitto play
    jump shiftExclusion Blackwood
    jump shift to Grand-Hunting Levelcomplete two-suiter

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1m-2m-2Y (INVERTED MINOR)

    revert to original suitto play
    raise second suitdouble fit, intermediate strength
    jump raise second suitdouble fit, game-going strength. 1C 2C 2D 4D is two-suited Minorwood (because it's a jump), even though 1D 2D 3C 4C isn't.
    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.
    2NTstoppers in both unbid suits
    New suit below original suitshows feature, denies ability to bid 2NT. 1m-2m-2H-2S-any-3S is natural in case opener was 4441.
    New suit above original suitshows feature, game-forcing
    Jump shiftsplinter, not bid immediately because of four-card major

    OPENER'S CONTINUATION AFTER 1X-2X-2suit-any (INVERTED MINOR)

    New suit at three levelsingleton, 5431 shape
    1m-2m-2H-2S-3S4441 with both majors
    1m-2m-2H-any-3C-any-3S4441 with both majors
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1X-2X-2NT (INVERTED MINOR)

    3 of agreed minorto play
    3 of other suitgame-forcing, natural, e.g. slam probe or looking for 4-4 major suit fits
    3NTto play
    Jump shiftsplinter, not bid immediately because of four-card major

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER INVERTED MINOR 1X-3X (WEAK)

  • Minorwood is now off and 4X is to play unless opener makes it their immediate rebid.

  • pass after doubleNot interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.
    redoubleShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.
    New suit at 3-levelShows feature and a strong hand making a game try, often a probe for 3NT but might also be a trial bid for 5m. Not game-forcing, so the auction can stop in 4m.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    New suit at 4-leveltrial bid
    3NTto play
    raise to 4Minorwood
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1X-3X-game try (INVERTED MINOR)

    3NTto play, with a feature in both unbid suits
    any trump bidto play (not Minorwood)
    New suit below trump suitshows feature
    New suit above trump suitsplinter, two Key Cards

    OPENER'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER 1X-3X-gametry-anything up to 4X (INVERTED MINOR)

    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTto play
    any trump bidto play (not Minorwood)
    Rebidding game try suitfive-card suit
    bidding an unbid suitshows singleton
    raising partner's game try responseslam try
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER 1X-3X-gametry-splinter (INVERTED MINOR)

    Cheapest non-trump bidasks about the queen of trumps
    other non-trump bidscue-bidding third-round controls

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1H 1S 1NT

    2 of a minornatural, forcing
    2Hweak, three-card support
    2Sweak, to play
    Another new suitForcing, promising at least enough strength to invite game opposite opener's 12-14. Opener is allowed to jump to 3NT with a maximum and no fit for either of responder's suits.
    2NTquantitative, invitational
    3 of a minorbig two-suiter, at least 5-5, slam interest
    3Hgame-forcing, three-card support
    3SNatural, game-forcing. Only shows a five-card suit, i.e. the equivalent of a natural forcing 1NT 3Y before transfers were invented.
    3NTto play
    4 of a minorsplinter with strong spades, agreeing hearts
    4Hto play
    4Sto play
    4NTquantitative (pass or bid slam)
    5 of any suitExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative (bid six or seven)

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1m 1Y 1NT

    raise to 2mWeak, to play. (NOT the Inverted Minor, which only applies to immediate responses.)
    raise to 3mFour-card support and intermediate strength, but didn't go via an Inverted Minor single raise and so must be at least 5-4 with a five-card major. Non-forcing, allowing opener to choose the final contract (3NT or game or part-score in either bid suit).
    Another new suitForcing, promising at least enough strength to invite game opposite opener's 12-14. Opener is allowed to jump to 3NT with a maximum and no fit for either of responder's suits.
    2NTquantitative, invitational
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTto play
    raise to 4mMinorwood
    Rebid 2Yweak, to play
    Jump rebid 3YNatural, game-forcing. Only shows a five-card suit, i.e. the equivalent of a natural forcing 1NT 3Y before transfers were invented.
    2 of a third suitNatural, forcing.
    Jump shift below 3mbig two-suiter, at least 5-5, slam interest
    4NTquantitative (pass or bid slam)
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood, for own suit if major, or else for partner's
    5NTquantitative (bid six or seven)
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1C 1D 1NT

    2CWeak, to play. (Not the Inverted Minor, which only applies as the immediate response to a 1C/1D opening.) Unlikely to have only the minors, because such a hand would have supported clubs immediately... might instead be 4441, perhaps.
    2D6+ diamonds, weak, to play
    2 of a majornatural, 5-4 shape, forcing
    Another new suitForcing, promising at least enough strength to invite game opposite opener's 12-14. Opener is allowed to jump to 3NT with a maximum and no fit for either of responder's suits.
    2NTquantitative, invitational
    3CGame-forcing and slam-invitational, with club support and a strong diamond suit of at least five cards. This is fundamentally different to the similar-looking situation where responder gives delayed support after showing a major, because there's no advantage to a diamond contract over a club one.
    3Dnatural, game-forcing
    3 of a majorsplinter in support of clubs
    3NTto play
    4 of a minorMinorwood
    4 of a majorExclusion Blackwood in support of clubs
    4NTquantitative (pass or bid slam)
    5 of a minorto play
    5 of a majorcomplete two-suiter, i.e. two voids
    5NTquantitative (bid six or seven)

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C 1D 1NT 3C

  • Game-forcing auction. Responder has a slam-invitational hand with club support and a strong diamond suit of at least five cards. This is fundamentally different to the similar-looking situation where responder gives delayed support after showing a major, because there's no advantage to a diamond contract over a club one.

  • 3DShowing three-card support and a double fit.
    3 of a majorUseful feature.
    3NTTo play, opener's hand unsuited to responder's mild slam invitation.
    4CMinorwood, which has been unlocked by responder's auction.
    4Dgolden hand that's almost all key cards, with an excellent diamond holding.
    4 of a majorgolden hand that's almost all key cards, semi-splinter showing a small doubleton.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1m 1M 1NT 3m

  • With opener having a balanced 12-14 and responder only holding intermediate strength, it's possible for the partnership to stop in four of a minor.

  • passTo play
    new suit at 3-levelProbe for 3NT, showing a feature. If responder now reverts to four of the agreed minor, this is a negative and to play.
    responder's major3-card support, non-forcing.
    4 of the agreed minorTo play, not Minorwood. Possibly trying to shut out the opposition.
    any gameTo play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER A VERY STRONG GAME-FORCING 2NT REBID FROM OPENER (STARTED WITH MINOR)

  • The general principle is that the big unknown hand, opener, is in control. The exact nature of their game-forcing hand isn't yet known and will be revealed later in the auction, be it a huge single-suited hand with opener, a fit with responder or whatever. Responder should try to describe their hand and answer opener's questions.

  • 3 of partner's minorNatural, shows 4-card support unless impossible from first response.
    RebidNatural, 5-card suit.
    New suitNatural, shows second suit.
    3NTDenies having any other shape-showing bid available. Either 4333 or suppressing a worthless four-card suit.
    4 of partner's minorMinorwood
    Other bidNormal meaning, e.g. Splinter, Exclusion Blackwood.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER A VERY STRONG GAME-FORCING 2NT REBID FROM OPENER (STARTED WITH MAJOR)

  • The general principle is that the big unknown hand, opener, is in control. The exact nature of their game-forcing hand isn't yet known and will be revealed later in the auction, be it a huge single-suited hand with opener, a fit with responder or whatever. Responder should try to describe their hand and answer opener's questions.

  • 3 of partner's majorNatural, 3-card support, less than intermediate strength.
    RebidNatural, 5-card suit.
    New suitNatural, shows second suit.
    3NTDenies having any other shape-showing bid available. Doubleton at most in partner's major, can't rebid own suit (ergo four-card suit only) and has no second suit that they regard as biddable (presumably suppressing a worthless four-card suit).
    4 of partner's majorNatural, 3-card support, intermediate strength or greater.
    Other bidNormal meaning, e.g. Splinter, Exclusion Blackwood, RKC Blackwood in opener's suit.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1A-1B-1NT-2C

    Either of responder's suitsnatural
    Rebdding own first-bid suitchunky five-card suit or better, fit in neither of responder's suits
    Fourth suitdouble fit in both of responder's suits
    2NTfit in neither of responder's suits, declining game invitation
    3NTfit in neither of responder's suits, declining game invitation

    CONTINUATIONS AFTER 1X 1Y 1NT 3Y (natural, game-forcing)

  • Opener can try to sign off in 3NT, or co-operate with a suit bid.
  • 3 of an unbid major merely shows feature, since opener has denied having it.
  • CONTINUATIONS AFTER 1X 1Y 1NT and a strong two-suiter from responder

    no-trumpsdoubletons in both suits
    partner's suitthree-card support for second suit, doubleton in first
    lowest other responsesupport for second suit, doubleton in first
    anything elsesupport for both suits

  • - this also applies after some other sequences in which opener is balanced and
  • responder has shown two suits, e.g. 2NT-3H-3S-4D.
  • RESPONSES TO 1NT

  • SYSTEM IS OFF after almost any intervention (e.g. an overcall or a penalty double), but it's still on if the opponents make a double that is known by both Finn and David to be merely part of a system of overcalls (e.g. Meckwell). If in doubt, don't make the latter assumption.
  • DEFENDING AGAINST CONTINUATIONS: if the meaning of an opponent's continuation isn't known, for simplicity it should be assumed to be the same as ours.

  • PassTo play. If the opponents compete in a suit, a next-round double from this hand is competitive and for takeout.
    RedoubleWants to double the opponents for penalties.
    2CStayman, promising either (a) a four-card major, or (b) a long minor suit and slam interest.
    2Dtransfer to 2H
    2Htransfer to 2S
    2Stransfer to the minors
    2NTquantitative with 9 points or a good 8, inviting 3NT
    2NT after overcallto play, not invitational. There's no longer any invitational sequence available after the opposition have intervened over our 1NT opening. You'll have to take a view and either bid 2NT or 3NT for yourself, either of which partner will pass.
    3C after an intervening Unusual 2NT for the minorsStaymanic with game-going values, denying a five-card major.
    3 of a suitgame-forcing splinter, promising a four-card major and opening hand strength. Unlocks Blackwood. A hand that wants to splinter if 3-1 in the majors should go via 1NT-2S.
    3NTto play
    Cue-bid after overcallasking for a stop for 3NT
    New suit after interventionNatural and non-forcing, to play, all conventions off. Opener is expected usually to pass. If instead they bid again after 1NT (2H) 2S, for instance, this is similar to breaking a transfer or raising partner's weak takeout. It's a gamble, obviously, but sometimes it strikes gold because partner will have been holding invitational values and the overcall deprived your side of an invitational sequence. It shows an encouraging maximum and if it's a new suit, promises a good five-card suit.
    Jump shift after interventionnatural, game-forcing
    DoubleTake-out if below 4S. Uniquely, to double and then keep bidding when/if partner takes it out is game-forcing (and shows at least a five-card suit), which isn't what the sequence shows after other opening bids. The reason is that an immediate bid (instead of double) would have been non-forcing and to play, so by corollary making a takeout double and then bidding on must be strong and forcing. This will still be true even if partner subsequently doubles (penalties) the opponents after they've kept up their intervention... if responder had a weak hand that couldn't stand to hear opener make a penalty double, then it shouldn't have made a takeout double in the first place and should have either passed or bid a suit.
    4C, 4D, 4H, 4STransfer to next suit. Super-accepts are banned at the four level.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5 of a minorto play
    5 of a major"pick a slam", 5440 shape with a void in the bid suit.
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamTo play, showing a no-loser trump suit at the six level. Not a transfer.

    DEFENCE TO 1NT

  • Two-suited bids are available, a bit like our defence to a Precision 1C, but the difference is that there's less urgency and more danger involved in getting into the auction because a 1NT opening is very informative immediately. The system stays the same when defending against an opening 1NT of any strength, except that double is for the majors against a strong no-trump and for penalties against weak or super-weak options.

  • Any bid in the pass-out seatA king weaker than when bid directly, EXCEPT for double.
    Doublethe majors
    Double from a non-passed hand against a known weak or super-weak no-trump, i.e. an average point count below 15 pointsStrong, for penalties. Promises at least two points more than the average point count for an opening 1NT in the opponents' system. IMPORTANT: not shaded by three points in the protective seat, because responder's pass could still be strong-ish and usually isn't a disaster area. However this is a unique situation and "transfer a king" still applies in all other protective positions.
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER PARTNER PASSES AND THE OPPONENTS KEEP THE BIDDING ALIVE IN THE PROTECTIVE SEAT

    PassCould be for penalties, hoping partner will make a takeout double
    DoubleTake-out
    RedoubleMaximum for the 1NT opening bid and feeling lucky, increasing the pressure on the opponents.
    New suit5-card suit

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 1NT-2NT INVITATIONAL RAISE

    passto play
    3C, 3Dto play, minimum
    3H, 3Sgame-forcing, five-card suit
    3NTto play

    DEFENCE TO 1NT-2NT

    Doublethe majors
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors

    1NT OPENER'S RESPONSES TO A MAJOR-SUIT TRANSFER

    transfer suitexpected response
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    +1super-accept with a useful side-suit
    +2super-accept with four trumps and no useful side-suit
    +3super-accept with five trumps and no useful side-suit
    jump a levelsuper-accept with six trumps

    DEFENCE TO A TRANSFER TO THE MAJORS

    passMight be a waiting bid from a strong hand.
    DoubleLead-directing. Would normally show both majors, but one of them's just been taken out of the equation.
    responder's real suittake-out
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1NT, A TRANSFER AND A MINIMUM RESPONSE

    Raising the transfer suit to the 3-level6-card suit, inviting the trump game
    Raising the transfer suit to the 4-levelmild slam invitation, unlocking Blackwood, because the transfer wasn't directly at the 4-level.
    new suitnatural, game-forcing.
    2NT5 trumps, invitational
    3NT5 trumps, pass-or-correct
    4NTRKC Blackwood (quantitative hands go 1NT-4D-4H-4NT)
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter Levelauto-splinter, showing six trumps and unlocking Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    DEFENCE TO A COMPLETED TRANSFER

    doubletakeout
    no-trumpslowest two suits
    other bidno special conventional meaning, to be taken as natural

    1NT OPENER'S RESPONSES TO A 2S TRANSFER TO THE MINORS

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    2NTsuper-accept in clubs
    3Cexpected response

    DEFENCE TO TRANSFER TO THE MINORS

    passMight be a waiting bid from a strong hand.
    Doublethe majors
    responder's real suittake-out
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)The bid's default meaning, e.g. strong and natural, or 4NT Blackwood. Might have been expected to show the minors, but this conventional meaning has just become redundant.
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S (dble) PASS/RDBLE (SHOWING SPADES)

  • Largely the same as the system after 1NT 2S 3C, but with an additional option (2NT).

  • pass/redoubleto play
    2NT after a lead-directing double, or even redoubledAt least 5-4 in the minors, game-forcing and at least mildly slam invitational with opening hand strength.
    3Cweak, long clubs
    3Dweak, long diamonds
    3H, 3SAt least 5-4 in the minors, small singleton in bid major, opening hand strength. Mild slam invitation, unlocks Minorwood for opener.
    3NTAt least 5-4 in the minors with no small singleton, ergo either 5422 or holding a singleton honour. Inviting partner to go on to game or possibly slam in a minor. This bid is passable if responder is a passed hand, but otherwise it's forcing to at least 4NT.
    4CTwo-Suited Minorwood in both minors, since a hand that wants to bid single-suited Minorwood will be expected to go via Stayman.
    4D, 4H, 4SExclusion Blackwood with clubs as the agreed trump suit, because a hand with diamonds could have gone via 1NT 4C 4D
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT, with precisely five clubs
    5D, 5H, 5SComplete two-suiter in clubs and the bid suit
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT, with precisely five clubs
    Any slamTo play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1NT-2S-2NT (TRANSFER TO THE MINORS AND CLUB SUPER-ACCEPT)

  • Any rebid above 4C is the equivalent of the same rebid after a hypothetical four-level transfer in clubs (which doesn't exist in our system). The other three suits can be shown directly, e.g. 1NT 4C 4D, etc.

  • 3CWeak, long clubs. This is the only club-agreeing response that isn't game-forcing.
    3DWeak, long diamonds. This is the only response that doesn't fix clubs as the agreed trump suit.
    3H, 3SAt least 5-4 in the minors, small singleton in bid major, opening hand strength (unless passed hand). Mild slam invitation, unlocks Minorwood for opener.
    3NTTo play, upgrading a hand that had been planning to play in 3C.
    4CMinorwood
    4D, 4H, 4SExclusion Blackwood
    4NTQuantitative slam invitation, asking opener to choose between 5C and 6C. (Might also be a hand that really wants to choose between six and seven, but opener needn't worry about that.) Opener either signs off in 5C or accepts the slam invitation by starting a cue-bidding sequence (in aces).
    5CTo play
    5D, 5H, 5SComplete two-suiter
    5NTGrand Slam Force, i.e. bid 7C with two of the top three clubs.
    Any slamTo play, even if it's not clubs.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1NT-2S-3C (TRANSFER TO THE MINORS AND EXPECTED RESPONSE)

  • Any rebid above 4C is the equivalent of the same rebid after a hypothetical four-level transfer in clubs (which doesn't exist in our system). The other three suits can be shown directly, e.g. 1NT 4C 4D, etc.

  • passweak, long clubs
    3Dweak, long diamonds
    3H, 3SAt least 5-4 in the minors, small singleton in bid major, opening hand strength (unless passed hand). Mild slam invitation, unlocks Minorwood for opener.
    3NTAt least 5-4 in the minors with no small singleton, ergo either 5422 or holding a singleton honour. Inviting partner to go on to game or possibly slam in a minor. This bid is passable if responder is a passed hand, but otherwise it's forcing to at least 4NT.
    4CTwo-Suited Minorwood in both minors, since a hand that wants to bid single-suited Minorwood will be expected to go via Stayman.
    4D, 4H, 4SExclusion Blackwood with clubs as the agreed trump suit, because a hand with diamonds could have gone via 1NT 4C 4D
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT, with precisely five clubs
    5D, 5H, 5SComplete two-suiter in clubs and the bid suit
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT, with precisely five clubs
    Any slamTo play

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S 2NT 3H/S (CLUB SUPER-ACCEPT AND MAJOR-SUIT SINGLETON)

    3NTTo play, showing a strong holding in the singleton suit and discouraging further investigation of 6C.
    The other major5-card suit, suggesting an alternative trump suit and/or source of tricks. Responder's cheapest response to this if 4C has been bypassed is Two-Suited Blackwood. Alternatively a club bid from responder is either Minorwood (if 4C) or to play (if higher).
    Jump in the other major (4S)As above, but showing AKQxx.
    4CMinorwood
    4DTwo-suited Minorwood (both minors)
    Raise singleton suitAs above, i.e. four key cards, but with the additional information that the one key card you don't have is the ace of partner's singleton suit. The existence of this bid thus implies that a 4D response will hold the ace of the suit in which partner has a singleton.
    4NTtransfer bid, showing a hand with no vulnerable tenaces that thinks the (as yet unspecified) club contract might play more safely if the lead's running up to partner.
    5Cto play
    6Cto play

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S (dble) PASS 2NT (5-4 IN THE MINORS, GAME-FORCING)

    3 of a minornatural, four-card suit
    3Hnatural, five-card suit and hence exactly 4522
    3S3-3 in the minors
    3NTUnable to bid anything else, i.e. only four or five cards in the minors and no five-card heart suit.

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S (dble) RDBLE 2NT (5-4 IN THE MINORS, GAME-FORCING)

    3 of a minornatural, four-card suit
    3H3 clubs, 2 diamonds. Can't be showing five hearts since opener has a balanced hand and has already shown five spades with the redouble.
    3S3-3 in the minors
    3NTUnable to bid anything else, i.e. exactly two clubs and two or three diamonds.

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S (dble) PASS/RDBLE 3H (5-4 IN THE MINORS AND A HEART SINGLETON)

    Pass after doublethe "unbiddable shape", but with specifically three clubs and two diamonds. Unable to bid 3NT. Doesn't show the usual "non-horrible four-card suit" because responder's already promised a singleton, so opener knows his side's exact combined holding in that suit.
    Redoubleto play even opposite a known singleton, with an unannounced powerful holding in the singleton suit.
    3S3-3 in the minors, the equivalent of what a 4C relay would have meant from an opener who'd denied holding four clubs by failing to super-accept after 1NT 2S (which of course isn't the case on this auction). In particular there's no longer any need to play this bid as natural and inviting a spade contract, because you've already done so over the opponents' double of the earlier 2S relay. (Partner declined.)
    3NTTo play, showing a strong holding in the singleton suit and discouraging investigation of a minor-suit game or slam.
    4CMinorwood in clubs.
    4DMinorwood in diamonds
    raise the singleton suit to fourthe "unbiddable shape", but with specifically three clubs and two diamonds. Unable to bid 3NT.
    4Ssix-card spade suit, to play, e.g. AQJ1065 KJ4 K3 Q3. It wouldn't be good enough to bid 3S planning to rebid them, because partner's rebid might be Minorwood.
    4NTRKC Blackwood with trumps being the other major, opener presumably holding a big undisclosed suit and a suitable holding opposite partner's singleton.
    5Cagrees clubs, with no key cards.
    5Dagrees diamonds, with no key cards.

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S (dble) PASS/RDBLE 3S (5-4 IN THE MINORS AND A SPADE SINGLETON)

    Pass after doublethe "unbiddable shape", but with specifically three clubs and two diamonds. Unable to bid 3NT. Doesn't show the usual "non-horrible four-card suit" because responder's already promised a singleton, so opener knows his side's exact combined holding in that suit.
    Pass after a double of your own conventional bid is passed around to you, possibly redoubledTo play.
    Redoubleto play even opposite a known singleton, with an unannounced powerful holding in the singleton suit.
    Redouble after a double of your own conventional bid is passed around to youTo play. Shows high card strength and/or trump tolerance.
    3NTTo play, showing a strong holding in the singleton suit and discouraging investigation of a minor-suit game or slam.
    4CMinorwood in clubs.
    4DMinorwood in diamonds
    4H3-3 in the minors. There's no need for a natural 4H bid on this sequence because a hand that might have wanted to bid that naturally is probably better off just saying 3NT instead. One hand has the majors and the other the minors, after all. Partner can bid 4S/4NT to ask for key cards in clubs/diamonds respectively, while any minor-suit bid is to play.
    raise the singleton suit to fourthe "unbiddable shape", but with specifically three clubs and two diamonds. Unable to bid 3NT.
    4NTRKC Blackwood with trumps being the other major, opener presumably holding a big undisclosed suit and a suitable holding opposite partner's singleton.
    5Cagrees clubs, with no key cards.
    5Dagrees diamonds, with no key cards.

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S 3C 3H (5-4 IN THE MINORS AND A HEART SINGLETON)

    Pass after doublethe "unbiddable shape", but with specifically three clubs and two diamonds. Unable to bid 3NT. Doesn't show the usual "non-horrible four-card suit" because responder's already promised a singleton, so opener knows his side's exact combined holding in that suit.
    Redoubleto play even opposite a known singleton, with an unannounced powerful holding in the singleton suit.
    3Sfive-card spade suit
    3NTTo play, showing a strong holding in the singleton suit and discouraging investigation of a minor-suit game or slam.
    4C3-3 in the minors. Partner can bid 4D as Minorwood for clubs or 4H as Minorwood for diamonds. The 4C bid can't be natural because opener has already denied having four clubs by not super-accepting after 1NT 2S.
    4DMinorwood in diamonds
    raise the singleton suit to fouran unbiddable shape, e.g. 4432 with four small cards in the announced singleton suit and only 3-2 in the minors. Unable to bid 3NT, can't bid the other major and can't guarantee a trump fit. Asks partner to bid their minor at the five level, or 4NT to show equal minors (presumably 5-5).
    4Ssix-card spade suit, to play, e.g. AQJ1065 KJ4 K3 Q3. It wouldn't be good enough to bid 3S planning to rebid them, because partner's rebid might be Minorwood.
    4NTRKC Blackwood with trumps being the other major, opener presumably holding a big undisclosed suit and a suitable holding opposite partner's singleton.
    5Cagrees diamonds, with exactly one key card. It can't be natural because opener has already denied having four clubs.
    5Dagrees diamonds, with no key cards.

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S 3C 3S (5-4 IN THE MINORS AND A SPADE SINGLETON)

    Pass after doublethe "unbiddable shape", but with specifically three clubs and two diamonds. Unable to bid 3NT. Doesn't show the usual "non-horrible four-card suit" because responder's already promised a singleton, so opener knows his side's exact combined holding in that suit.
    Redoubleto play even opposite a known singleton, with an unannounced powerful holding in the singleton suit.
    3NTTo play, showing a strong holding in the singleton suit and discouraging investigation of a minor-suit game or slam.
    4C3-3 in the minors. Partner can bid 4D as Minorwood for clubs or 4H as Minorwood for diamonds. The 4C bid can't be natural because opener has already denied having four clubs by not super-accepting after 1NT 2S.
    4DMinorwood in diamonds
    4Hsix-card spade suit, to play, e.g. AQJ1065 KJ4 K3 Q3. It wouldn't be good enough to bid 3S planning to rebid them, because partner's rebid might be Minorwood.
    raise the singleton suit to fouran unbiddable shape, e.g. 4432 with four small cards in the announced singleton suit and only 3-2 in the minors. Unable to bid 3NT, can't bid the other major and can't guarantee a trump fit. Asks partner to bid their minor at the five level, or 4NT to show equal minors (presumably 5-5).
    4NTRKC Blackwood with trumps being the other major, opener presumably holding a big undisclosed suit and a suitable holding opposite partner's singleton.
    5Cagrees diamonds, with exactly one key card. It can't be natural because opener has already denied having four clubs.
    5Dagrees diamonds, with no key cards.

    1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S 3C 3NT (5-4 IN THE MINORS AND NO SMALL SINGLETON)

    PassTo play, permissible only if responder is a passed hand.
    4C3-3 in the minors. Can't be showing a genuine club suit, because that's already been denied with 1NT 2S 2NT.
    4DAgrees diamonds as trumps, Minorwood.
    4H3 clubs, 2 diamonds. A continuation of 4S is Minorwood for clubs.
    4S3 diamonds, 2 clubs. A continuation of 5C is Minorwood for diamonds.
    4NTTo play, with 5-4 in the majors.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 1NT 2S 3C 3NT 4C (3-3 in the minors, guaranteeing a minor-suit fit)

    4DMinorwood for diamonds.
    4HMinorwood for clubs.
    4SQuantitative raise, inviting partner to choose between either a minor-suit game or slam, depending on strength. Opener will bid a pass-or-correct 5C or 6C.
    4NTto play
    any game or slam in the minorsto play

    1NT OPENER'S RESPONSES TO A THREE-LEVEL SPLINTER

    simple suit responseBidding 4-card suits up the line, looking for a trump fit, except that if opener's immediate "simple suit response" is the highest of the three available suits then it's not a suggestion but an order (and if four of a minor, also Minorwood). The partnership can agree the last-suggested suit by rebidding the splinter suit.
    Jump shiftfixes trumps, asks about responder's Key Cards
    3NTto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood for the highest of the three suits
    Cue-bid splinter suitordinary Blackwood, i.e. not Key-Card
    Pass after lead-directing doubleAsking partner to describe his hand further, i.e. either raise the splinter suit if holding a void, bid a five-card suit or else 3NT if 4441.
    Redouble after lead-directing doubleTo play despite partner's known singleton, very strong suit.

    CONTINUATIONS AFTER A PENALTY DOUBLE OF OUR 1NT OPENING

    Passto play
    New suitnatural
    Immediate redoublefor blood
    Later redoublefor rescue, perhaps having previously bid a short suit

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2NT-3S

  • After both of these responses, the cheapest next bid from responder is Minorwood. This counts as a four-level transfer and so super-accepts are not permitted, although opener can under-accept to show a doubleton.

  • Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3NTdoubleton club
    4C3+ clubs

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2NT 3S (transfer to clubs)

    Passto play
    3NT after lead-directing doubleForcing, looking for a trump fit.
    Cheapest bid (except 3NT)Minorwood
    agreed suit at game or slam levelto play
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT, with a five-card suit
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT, with a five-card suit
    New suit at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood.
    New suit at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2NT 3S (clubs) (DBLE) PASS/RDBLE 3NT (forcing)

    4CAgrees partner's clubs
    4D, 4Hdoubleton club, 4-4 or 4-5 in spades and the bid suit
    4Sdoubleton club, single-suited in spades

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2NT 3S (clubs) (DBLE) PASS/RDBLE 3NT (forcing) AND CONTINUATION

    cheapest next suitAsking for key cards, since opener is known to have spades and there's no point in looking for a third four-card suit in a balanced hand.
    4NTto play (not Blackwood)

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER STRONG BALANCED OPENING + 4-LEVEL TRANSFER TO DIAMONDS

    Passto play
    Cheapest bidMinorwood
    agreed suit at game or slam levelto play
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT, with a five-card suit
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT, with a five-card suit
    New suit at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood.
    New suit at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter.

    CONTINUATIONS AFTER STRONG BALANCED OPENING + 4-LEVEL TRANSFER

  • Super-accepts are not permitted for a transfer at the four-level. Opener has no option except to make exactly the bid requested by responder, so this page describes responder's rebid after this rather than opener's.

  • Passto play
    agreed suit at game or slam levelto play
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT, with a five-card suit
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT, with a five-card suit
    New suit at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood.
    New suit at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter.

    1NT-2C (FOUR-CARD MAJORS)

    Pass after overcallmight be passing for penalties, hoping for a reopening takeout double from partner
    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    Diamondsdenies a four-card major
    Heartsfour hearts
    Spadesfour spades, denying four hearts

    DEFENCE TO 1NT-2C (STAYMAN)

    passMight be a waiting bid from a strong hand.
    Doublethe majors
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    2NT-3C (FOUR-CARD MAJORS)

    Pass after overcallmight be passing for penalties, hoping for a reopening takeout double from partner
    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    Diamondsdenies a four-card major
    Heartsfour hearts
    Spadesfour spades, denying four hearts

    FINN AND DAVID'S DEFENCE TO 2NT 3C

  • All such bids are to be assumed to be weak and pre-emptive, so a reply from partner is non-forcing.

  • Doublethe majors
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    2Ddiamonds and a major
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    2D-3C (FIVE-CARD MAJORS)

    Pass after overcallmight be passing for penalties, hoping for a reopening takeout double from partner
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    Diamonds"what's your 4-card major?"
    Heartsfive hearts
    Spadesfive spades, happy for 3NT to be played the wrong way up
    No Trumpsto play, denying the majors

    2D-2H-2?-3C (AT LEAST 5-4 IN THE MAJORS)

  • NOTE: we don't allow "I have both majors" 4m responses for the sake of consistency with other, similar-looking, Stayman auctions in which responder might be getting ready to bid Minorwood. Here as it happens we know they're not going to, but we've kept things simple anyway in the name of trying to make the system easier to remember. Besides, a hand with both majors can always bid a quiet 3D to find out more information, then reveal their shape to partner on the following round.

  • Pass after overcallmight be passing for penalties, hoping for a reopening takeout double from partner
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleShows a good five-card suit, or alternatively if that's impossible given the earlier bidding then an outstandingly good four-card suit (at least AKQx).
    Diamonds"what's your 5-card major?"
    Heartsfour hearts
    Spadesfour spades, denying four hearts
    No Trumpsto play, denying the majors.

    1NT-2C-(DBLE) + PASS/REDOUBLE

    pass/redoubleto play
    doubletakeout
    2NTgame-forcing
    cue bid of doubled suitgame-forcing, possibly a probe for 3NT
    any other bidto play, possibly pre-emptive

    2NT-3C-(DBLE) + PASS/REDOUBLE

    doubletakeout, nearly mandatory
    any bida hand that would have pulled a penalty double, suggesting extreme shape and/or slam ambitions.
    3NTunspecified 5-5 shape.
    4NTBlackwood, trump suit unspecified.

    1NT-2C-(DBLE) + PASS/REDOUBLE

    pass/redoubleto play
    2 of suitto play
    Doubletakeout
    2NTquantitative, inviting 3NT with a four-card major
    3CSingleton or void club, three-suited. Can't be natural, because such a hand would have been playing in 2C (re)doubled.
    3Dgame-forcing and probably slam interest, with at least a good 5-card suit. Blackwood hasn't been unlocked, so opener can raise. This sequence says nothing about responder's majors.
    3H5-5 in the majors, game-invitational
    3S5-5 in the majors, slam-invitational
    3NTto play, with a four-card major
    4CExclusion Blackwood, trump suit unspecified
    4DMinorwood
    Any suit gameto play
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of a majorvoid-showing, "pick a slam"
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    2NT-3C-(DBLE) + PASS/REDOUBLE

    pass/redoubleto play
    Doubletakeout
    3DSingleton or void club, three-suited.
    3H, 3S5-4 in the majors with 5 of the bid suit, game-forcing
    3NTto play, with a four-card major
    4CExclusion Blackwood, trump suit unspecified
    4DMinorwood
    Any suit gameto play
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of a majorvoid-showing, "pick a slam"
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    2D-3C-(DBLE) + PASS/REDOUBLE

    pass/redoubleto play
    Doubletakeout
    3Dgame-forcing, 4 hearts
    3Hgame-forcing, 4 spades
    3Sgame-forcing, both majors
    3NTExclusion Blackwood in clubs, trump suit unknown
    4Csingleton or void club, three-suited. A 4NT response from partner is natural and to play.
    4DMinorwood
    4 of a majorto play

    2D-2H-2?-3C-(DBLE) + PASS/REDOUBLE

  • Responder is known to be at least 5-4 in the majors.

  • pass/redoubleto play
    Doubletakeout
    3Dgame-forcing, longer hearts
    3Hgame-forcing, longer spades
    3Sgame-forcing, 5-5 in the majors
    3NTExclusion Blackwood in clubs, trump suit unknown
    4Cvoid club, three-suited. A 4NT response from partner is natural and to play.
    4DMinorwood
    4 of a majorto play

    1NT-2C-2D ("NEGATIVE")

    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    2H, 2Sweak take-out, to play
    2NTquantitative, inviting 3NT with a four-card major
    3C, 3Dgame-forcing and probably slam interest, with at least a good 5-card suit. Blackwood hasn't been unlocked, so opener can raise. This sequence says nothing about responder's majors.
    3C after a double of the 2C bidgame-forcing, asking for a club stop for 3NT.
    3H5-5 in the majors, game-invitational
    3S5-5 in the majors, slam-invitational
    3NTto play, with a four-card major
    4C, 4DMinorwood
    Any suit gameto play
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of a majorvoid-showing, "pick a slam"
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    2NT-3C-3D ("NEGATIVE")

    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3H, 3S5-4 in the majors with 5 of the bid suit, game-forcing
    3NTto play, with a four-card major
    4C, 4DMinorwood
    Any suit gameto play
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of a majorvoid-showing, "pick a slam"
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    2D-3C-3D ("WHAT'S YOUR FOUR-CARD MAJOR?")

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3H, 3Sshows the other major
    3NT4-4 in the majors
    4C, 4DMinorwood

    STAYMAN: 2D 2H (relay) 2NT 3C (Stayman with 4-5 in the majors) 3D (which?) 3H (spades)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3SShowing a 5-3 spade fit, with cue-bid continuations.
    3NTTo play
    4CDouble fit, 4-4 in the majors
    4DDouble fit, 5-4 in the majors
    4HNEVER BID, leaving 4H available as a relay for responder to re-transfer to 4S should they have no interest in looking for slam over a "double fit" response.

    STAYMAN: 2D 3C (Stayman) 3D (which?) 3H (spades)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3SShowing a 4-4 spade fit, with cue-bid continuations.
    3NTTo play
    4C4-card spade fit in a golden 5422 hand with a powerful five-card side-suit of clubs or hearts. Partner can find out which with a relay bid of 4D.
    4D4-card spade fit in a golden 5422 hand with a powerful five-card side-suit of diamonds
    4HNEVER BID, leaving 4H available as a relay for responder to re-transfer to 4S should they have no interest in looking for slam over a "golden hand" response.

    STAYMAN: 2D 2H (relay) 2NT 3C (Stayman with 4-5 in the majors) 3D (which?) 3S (hearts)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    any gameTo play
    4CDouble fit, 4-4 in the majors with a side-suit fragment of clubs.
    4DDouble fit, 4-4 in the majors with a side-suit fragment of diamonds. There's no need for a re-transferring relay because 2H was responder's initial reply to the 2D opening.

    STAYMAN: 2D 3C (Stayman) 3D (which?) 3S (hearts)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    any gameTo play
    4CHeart fit, golden 5422 hand with four hearts and an unknown powerful five-card side-suit.
    4DNEVER BID, leaving 4D available as a relay for responder to re-transfer to 4H should they have no interest in looking for slam over a "golden hand" response.

    1NT-2C-2H ("FOUR HEARTS")

    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    2Snatural and slam-going, looking for 4-4 trump fits
    2NTquantitative, inviting 3NT with a four-card major
    3C after a double of the 2C bidgame-forcing, asking for a club stop for 3NT.
    3C, 3Dgame-forcing and probably slam interest, with at least a good 5-card suit. Blackwood hasn't been unlocked, so opener can raise. This sequence says nothing about responder's majors.
    Raise to threeinviting four
    3 of the other majorslam invitation with 5-5 in the majors, unlocking Blackwood
    3NTto play, with a four-card major
    4C, 4DMinorwood
    4 of partner's majorto play
    4 of the other majorBlackwood, agreeing partner's suit
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of partner's majorquantitative, inviting a trump slam
    5 of any other suitExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    2NT-3C-3H ("FOUR HEARTS")

    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3Snatural and slam-going, looking for 4-4 trump fits
    3NTto play, with a four-card major
    4C, 4DMinorwood
    4 of partner's majorto play
    4 of the other majorBlackwood, agreeing partner's suit
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of partner's majorquantitative, inviting a trump slam
    5 of any other suitExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    2D-3C-3H ("FIVE HEARTS")

    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3S"please bid 3NT" -- also promises four spades
    3NT"please start bidding four-card minors"
    4C, 4DMinorwood
    4 of partner's majorto play
    4 of the other majorBlackwood, agreeing partner's suit
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of partner's majorquantitative, inviting a trump slam
    5 of any other suitExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    2NT-3C-3S ("FOUR") OR 2D-3C-3S ("FIVE")

    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3NTto play, with a four-card major
    4C, 4DMinorwood
    4 of partner's majorto play
    4 of the other majorBlackwood, agreeing partner's suit
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of partner's majorquantitative, inviting a trump slam
    5 of any other suitExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    1NT-2C-2S ("FOUR SPADES, DENYING HEARTS")

    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    2NTquantitative, inviting 3NT with a four-card major
    3C, 3Dgame-forcing and probably slam interest, with at least a good 5-card suit. Blackwood hasn't been unlocked, so opener can raise. This sequence says nothing about responder's majors.
    3C after a double of the 2C bidgame-forcing, asking for a club stop for 3NT.
    Raise to threeinviting four
    3 of the other majorslam invitation with 5-5 in the majors, unlocking Blackwood
    3NTto play, with a four-card major
    4C, 4DMinorwood
    4 of partner's majorto play
    4 of the other majorBlackwood, agreeing partner's suit
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of partner's majorquantitative, inviting a trump slam
    5 of any other suitExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    2D-3C-3NT, DENYING A FOUR-CARD MAJOR

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    4C, 4DMinorwood
    Any suit gameto play
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of a majorvoid-showing, "pick a slam"
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    1NT-2C-2D-3H (5-5 IN THE MAJORS, GAME-INVITATIONAL)

  • Responder is weak, so opener would need a golden hand to look for slam, e.g. AK1098 AQ A64 842

  • passto play
    3Sto play
    3NT"what's your singleton?"
    4CTwo-Suited Blackwood, agreeing hearts
    4DTwo-Suited Blackwood, agreeing spades
    4Hto play
    4Sto play

    1NT-2C-2D-3S AND SIMILAR SEQUENCES (5-5 IN THE MAJORS, SLAM-INVITATIONAL)

    3NTto play
    4CTwo-Suited Blackwood, agreeing hearts
    4DTwo-Suited Blackwood, agreeing spades
    4Hto play
    4Sto play
    4NT"what's your singleton?"

    2D-3C-3D-3NT (4-4 IN THE MAJORS)

    4Cslam invitation in hearts
    4Dslam invitation in spades
    4 of a majorto play

    STAYMAN: OPENER'S REBID AFTER SHOWING HEARTS AND HEARING PARTNER BID SPADES, SHOWING A SLAM-GOING HAND THAT'S STILL LOOKING FOR A 4-4 TRUMP FIT

    no-trumpsno biddable second suit, exactly four hearts
    either minor4-4 in hearts and the bid suit
    Rebid heartssingle-suited with 5+ hearts
    support partner's spades4-4 in the majors

    STAYMAN-NO-A-MINOR: 1NT OPENER'S REBID AFTER RESPONDER SHOWS SLAM INTEREST IN A MINOR

  • If there's more than one bid available to show trump support, the cheapest one shows exactly three and the next one is a super-accept.

  • raising the minornatural, not Minorwood because it hasn't been unlocked. Partner's cheapest continuation is Minorwood instead.
    bidding a suit that you can't have because of your Stayman responsetrump support
    any other biddenies support for partner, natural

    2D-2H-2any-3C-3H ("FOUR HEARTS")

    3Sslam invitation with 5-5 in the majors, unlocking Blackwood
    3NTSerious 3NT
    4C, 4Dsplinter, unlocking Blackwood
    4 of partner's majorto play
    4 of the other majorComplete Two-Suiter... since it can't be Exclusion Blackwood!
    4NTRKC Blackwood for the known trump fit. It doesn't need to be quantitative (as usual in Staymanic auctions) because 2D 2H 3C promised both majors from responder.
    5 of a minorExclusion Blackwood
    5 of partner's majorquantitative, inviting a trump slam
    5 of the other majorWhoops, partner, I forgot that I could have bid only 4S to show a complete two-suiter. Ah well. Sorry about that. It's still a complete two-suiter anyway.
    5NTthe Grand Slam Force, asking partner to bid seven if holding two of the top three trump honours.
    Any slamto play

    2D-2H-2any-3C-3S ("FOUR SPADES, DENYING HEARTS")

    3NTSerious 3NT
    4C, 4Dsplinter, unlocking Blackwood
    4 of the other majorslam invitation with 5-5 in the majors, unlocking Blackwood
    4 of partner's majorto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood for the known trump fit. It doesn't need to be quantitative (as usual in Staymanic auctions) because 2D 2H 3C promised both majors from responder.
    5 of a minorExclusion Blackwood
    5 of the other majorComplete Two-Suiter
    5 of partner's majorquantitative, inviting a trump slam
    5NTthe Grand Slam Force, asking partner to bid seven if holding two of the top three trump honours.
    Any slamto play

    2D-2H-2any-3C-3D ("WHAT'S YOUR FIVE-CARD MAJOR?")

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3H, 3Sshows the other major
    3NT5-5 in the majors, denies ability to splinter
    4C, 4D5-5 in the majors, splinter, unlocking Blackwood. After that a 4NT continuation from opener would be Blackwood for hearts and 5C for spades.
    4 of majorto play
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT. Opener can always bid a suit if their hand looks particularly suitable for trump play and they still want to know about responder's five-card major.
    5 of a minorTwo-Suited Exclusion Blackwood
    5 of a majorinviting six
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    2D-2H-2any-3C-3NT ("2-2 IN THE MAJORS")

  • There is no Blackwood option for a hand that wants to override partner's attempted sign-off even when they're known to be 2-2 in the majors. If you're that strong, you should have bid 2D-4C instead.

  • Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    4C, 4D5-5 in the majors and void-showing, inviting partner to reconsider. A 4NT continuation after this by opener is to play, not RKC Blackwood.
    4 of majorto play
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5 of a minorTwo-Suited Exclusion Blackwood
    5 of a majorinviting six
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    5-4 STAYMAN: OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2any-3C-3NT-4C ("5-5 IN THE MAJORS, CLUB VOID")

    4 of a major, or 4NTto play
    cheapest bid in the minorsTwo-Suited Blackwood

    SUPER-ACCEPTS BELOW THE FOUR LEVEL

  • After transfers and transfer-like bids (e.g. 1NT-2C-2D-3C),
  • these are how the strong balanced hand shows a big fit with partner's suit.
  • Super-accepts are only permitted for transfers up to the three-level.

  • transfer suitexpected response
    +1super-accept with a useful side-suit
    +2super-accept with four trumps and no useful side-suit
    +3super-accept with five trumps and no useful side-suit
    jump a levelsuper-accept with six trumps

    CONTINUATION AFTER A +1 SUPER-ACCEPT, i.e. WITH A SIDE-SUIT, e.g. 1NT 2D (hearts) 2S (side-suit)

    cheapest bid"what's your side-suit?"
    Agreed suit at cheapest available levelInvitational, asking partner to bid on if maximum and to pass if minimum.
    repeating transferRe-transfer, insisting that partner bid trumps.
    Agreed suit to 4-level, if minorMinorwood
    Agreed suit to gameto play
    3NTSerious 3NT if agreed suit is a major, or else to play if a minor
    Other bids up to Splinter Levelnatural, showing a second suit, or else a splinter if an unnecessary jump
    Cheapest bid if Minorwood has been bypassedMinorwood
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    CONTINUATION AFTER A SUPER-ACCEPT WITH NO SIDE-SUIT, e.g. 1NT 2D (hearts) 3C (five hearts, no side-suit)

    repeating transferRe-transfer, insisting that partner bid trumps.
    Agreed suit at cheapest available levelInvitational, asking partner to bid on if maximum and to pass if minimum. However this bid only has that meaning if the re-transfer bid is available, i.e. one below the transfered suit. If the re-transfer isn't available after all, this bid is just weak and to play.
    Agreed suit to 4-level, if minorMinorwood
    Agreed suit to gameto play
    3NTSerious 3NT if agreed suit is a major, or else to play if a minor
    Other bids up to Splinter Levelnatural, showing a second suit, or else a splinter if an unnecessary jump
    Cheapest bid if Minorwood has been bypassedMinorwood
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    "WHAT'S YOUR SIDE-SUIT?"

  • The cheapest bid after a +1 super-accept asks about the side-suit,
  • except after 1NT-2C-any-3m because in that case the side-suit is already known.
  • e.g. opener is marked with the minors on the following auction:
  • 1NT 2C (Stayman) 2D 3C (game-forcing with clubs) 3H (super-accept with a side-suit)

  • New suitthe side-suit
    trump suit or NTthe inconvenient side suit, e.g. clubs after 1NT-2H-2NT-3C. If there are two inconvenient side suits, then the cheaper of them is the cheaper option of trumps/NT and the higher side-suit is the higher option.

    STRONG BALANCED OPENER'S REBID AFTER TRANSFER AND SECOND SUIT, WITH OPENER'S LENGTH IN FIRST SUIT UNKNOWN

    No-trumpsSupport for neither suit
    Either of responder's suitsSupport for that suit. If the opponents haven't bid, then the bid also denies support for the other one. If they have, unfortunately we have no "support for both suits" bid except for a jump raise (see below).
    Cue-bidding a suit that's been bid or indicated by the opponents, e.g. they doubled our 2D openingDenying a fit in either of partner's suits, but also denying a stop in the opponents' suit.
    The Super-Accept Suit, if opponents silentSupport for both of partner's suits. If partner has indicated two suits and the opponents have stayed silent, then there will be two others left over... one will be this Super-Accept Suit and the other will be interpreted as natural. If the two missing suits are a major and a minor and both are available at a reasonable level (i.e. opener isn't being forced past game in either of responder's suits), then the Super-Accept Suit is the minor. Otherwise the Super-Accept Suit is simply the cheaper of the available options.
    Jump raise 1st suit (often not a realistic option) despite having not super-acceptedDouble fit with prime cards outside, ideal for slam. If a super-accept suit was available (i.e. an uncontested auction) then it shows specifically five-card support for responder's second suit.
    Jump raise 2nd suit (often not a realistic option)Five-card support, useful doubleton in responder's five-card suit and prime cards outside. Ideal for slam.
    Any other bidNatural, five-card suit. Denying a fit in either of partner's suits.

    STRONG BALANCED OPENER'S REBID AFTER TRANSFER AND SECOND SUIT, WITH OPENER'S EXACT LENGTH IN FIRST SUIT KNOWN

    No-trumpsNatural, support for neither suit
    Raise second suitNatural
    Reverting to responder's first suitSuper-accept in partner's second suit, i.e. five-card support.
    Cue-bidding a suit that's been bid or indicated by the opponents, e.g. they doubled our 2D openingDenying a fit in either of partner's suits, but also denying a stop in the opponents' suit.
    Any other bidNatural, five-card suit. Denying a fit in either of partner's suits.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER BIDDING A TRANSFER AND A SECOND SUIT, THEN GETTING SUIT AGREEMENT FROM OPENER

    Agreed trump suitnatural
    Repeating the other suitshows shape, slam invitation, unlocks Blackwood/Minorwood unless it itself is Minorwood, i.e. a minor at the 4-level.
    Cheapest new suit bid if a minor has just been agreed by bidding it at the four levelMinorwood
    Cheapest new suit bid that's not Minorwood, if opener has shown a side-suit"what's your side suit?"
    Other new suit below 4 of agreed trump suitshows a small singleton and invites partner to look for slam if suitable, unlocking Blackwood/Minorwood.
    Other new suit above 4 of agreed trump suitCue bid.
    Jump in third suit above 4 of agreed trump suitExclusion Blackwood.
    3NTSerious 3NT if the agreed trump suit is a major, starting a cue-bidding sequence. If a minor then it's slam-invitational, unlocking Minorwood if partner has a suitable hand, but can be passed.
    4NTBlackwood for a major. However if the agreed trump suit is a minor, then it's a quantitative slam invitation, inviting partner to bid six if maximum or else only five if minimum.

    STRONG BALANCED OPENER'S REBID AFTER RESPONDER TRANSFERS TO A MAJOR, THEN BIDS 3NT

  • This doesn't apply if opener broke the transfer to show four-card support.
  • Under those circumstances, a 3NT rebid is Serious and the start of a cue-bidding sequence.

  • PassDoubleton in responder's 5-card suit.
    Trump game3-card support for the 5-card suit, irrespective of other shape or apparent suitability for a trump contract. Had parter been sufficiently flat (e.g. 5332) that they wouldn't have wanted you to do that, they should have devalued their spades and bid Stayman or something.

    RESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2C

  • A "positive" is 8+ points, or (if not balanced) an ace and a king.
  • A biddable suit on the first round is at least Qxxxx, or any six-card suit.
  • System remains on after a double, albeit slightly tweaked, but is turned off after an overcall. There's not as much to turn off as there is after strong balanced openings, though.

  • Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    2DEither negative or unbalanced without a biddable suit.
    2H, 2S, 3C, 3DPositive, biddable suit.
    Suit from 3H to 4D, or 3C after a doublePositive values, auto-splinter showing a three-suited hand, usually 4441 or conceivably 5440 and burying the five-card suit.
    Unnecessary jump shiftCompletely solid suit, playable in a grand slam opposite a void.
    2NT8-11, balanced.
    3NT12+, balanced and slam-forcing.
    4NTStone Age Blackwood, for aces.
    DoubleTake-out, giving partner the opportunity to pass for penalties if wanted. Neither shows nor denies positive values. To double and then pull partner's response is game-forcing and natural (only showing a four-card suit) up to 3NT, but above that, a slam try and agreeing the suit that partner bid.
    Cue bid after overcallTake-out. Shows a control, positive values and slam interest.
    New suit after overcallNatural, game-forcing but no longer promising a positive or a suit that would have previously been regarded as biddable. It must however contain at least five cards.
    Jump shift after overcallIf four of a minor or 4NT, it's ace-asking. Otherwise it's to play and possibly pre-emptive.

    DEFENCE TO AN OPENING STRONG 2C

  • All such bids are to be assumed to be weak and pre-emptive, so a reply from partner is non-forcing.

  • Doublethe majors
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    2C OPENER'S REBID AFTER RESPONDER'S PASS/REDOUBLE OF A DOUBLE OF THE 2C BID

    pass/redoubleTo play. Subsequent doubles are for penalty.
    suit at 2-levelnatural, five-card suit
    2NT23-24 balanced, continuations as per an opening 2NT
    3C3-suited, singleton or void club.
    Jump suit bidsolid suit suitable for grand slam opposite a void
    Double jump suit bidExclusion Blackwood
    3NT25-26 balanced
    4NT27-29 balanced
    5NT30-32 balanced
    6NT33-36 balanced

    2C OPENER'S REBID AFTER A NEGATIVE 2D RESPONSE

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    2H, 2S, 3C, 3Dnatural, five-card suit
    Jump suit bidsolid suit suitable for grand slam opposite a void
    Double jump suit bidExclusion Blackwood
    2NT23-24 balanced, continuations as per an opening 2NT
    3NT25-26 balanced
    4NT27-29 balanced
    5NT30-32 balanced
    6NT33-36 balanced

    FINN AND DAVID'S DEFENCE TO AN OPENING STRONG 2C + 2D RESPONSE

  • All such bids are to be assumed to be weak and pre-emptive, so a reply from partner is non-forcing.

  • Doublethe majors
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    DUMMY PAGE: DEFAULT REBIDS FOR A 2C OPENER

    Jump suit bidsolid suit suitable for grand slam opposite a void
    Double jump suit bidExclusion Blackwood
    2NT23-24 balanced, continuations as per an opening 2NT
    3NT25-26 balanced
    4NT27-29 balanced
    5NT30-32 balanced
    6NT33-36 balanced

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2C-2D-(DBLE)-PASS/RDBLE (showing diamonds)

    pass/redoubleto play
    new suitnatural, four card suit.
    2NT0-1 points, the "double negative".
    3NTsingleton or void diamond, positive values and no good five-card suit. Only bid 2C 2D in the first place because the hand was unsuitable for any positive bid.
    3 of a major5-5 in clubs and the major

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2C-2D-2M

    New suit4-card suit, denies support for partner.
    2NT0-1 points, the "double negative".
    Raise3+ card support
    3NTSerious 3NT, agreeing partner's trump suit.
    Jump raise3+ card support in a hand that had enough high-card strength to make a positive response but had been forced to bid 2D because the hand had no biddable suit and wasn't balanced.
    Jump shiftSplinter
    4NTRKC Blackwood, agreeing partner's trump suit.
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2C-2D-3C

    New suit4-card suit, denies support for partner.
    Raise3+ card support. This isn't Minorwood because it makes no sense not to have the 2C opener asking the questions, so opener's cheapest next bid is Minorwood instead.
    Jump shiftExclusion Blackwood, agreeing partner's trump suit
    Jump raisei.e. going straight to game. 5-card trump fit with opener's minor, but no aces or kings.
    3NTPudding raise, showing a flat hand with trump support for partner's suit and a hand that's not bad within the points range of a 2D response but has all its points in queens and jacks. This must show a club fit because responder has declined the opportunity to bid 3D, 3H or 3S. Partner can either pass or go slamming, as they see fit.
    4NT3+ card support with exactly two Key Cards, in a hand that had had enough high-card strength for a positive response but was forced to bid 2D because the hand had no biddable suit and wasn't balanced. The Key Card requirement is because Minorwood can no longer be bid.
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2C-2D-3D

    New suit4-card suit, denies support for partner.
    Raise3+ card support. This isn't Minorwood because it makes no sense not to have the 2C opener asking the questions, so opener's cheapest next bid is Minorwood instead.
    3NTDenies a four-card major or 3+ of partner's diamonds, so must have at least five clubs.
    Jump shiftExclusion Blackwood, agreeing partner's trump suit
    4NT3+ card support with exactly two Key Cards, in a hand that had had enough high-card strength for a positive response but was forced to bid 2D because the hand had no biddable suit and wasn't balanced. The Key Card requirement is because Minorwood can no longer be bid.
    Jump raisei.e. going straight to game. 5-card trump fit with opener's minor, but no aces or kings.
    any slamto play

    CONTINUATIONS AFTER 2C-2D-[jump in X to show a completely solid suit]

    New suit1st-round control, then next bid is a 2nd-round control
    no-trumpsnothing to cue-bid
    no-trump bid from openerasking responder to bid suits, at least Qxxx

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2C-2D-2NT

  • ...just like after an opening 2NT

  • Passto play
    DoubleTake-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double and then keep bidding even when partner pulls it is game-forcing and natural (showing only a four-card suit) up to 3NT or else above that a slam try, agreeing partner's suit. If you want to play in a part-score, all you can do is pass and hope partner finds a reopening double, then make your non-forcing bid.
    RedoubleWants to double the opponents for penalties.
    3CStayman (ordinary four-card)
    3Dtransfer to hearts
    3Htransfer to spades
    3Stransfer to clubs
    New suit after overcallNatural, at least a five-card suit, game-forcing. Makes no promise as to suit quality.
    Jump shift after overcallIf four of a minor or 4NT, it's ace-asking. Otherwise it's to play and possibly pre-emptive.
    3NTto play
    Cue-bid after overcallTake-out, game-forcing, likely to have slam interest.
    4C, 4D, 4H, 4STransfer to next suit. Super-accepts are banned at the four level.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5 of a minorto play
    5 of a major"pick a slam", 5440 shape with a void in the bid suit.
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamTo play, showing a no-loser trump suit at the six level. Not a transfer.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2C-2D-3NT

    4C"please start bidding four-card suits"
    Other suit bids below 7Stransfer to next suit
    no-trump bidsquantitative

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2C-2D-4NT

    5NT"please start bidding four-card suits"
    6NTto play
    Suit bids below 7Stransfer to next suit

    2C OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 2-LEVEL POSITIVE SUIT RESPONSE

    pass after doublePartial (doubleton) support for partner's suit, probably Hx.
    redoubleNot even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    New suitbiddable five-card suit
    Raisesuit agreement
    2NTbalanced 23-24, denies fit. Continuations are NATURAL, not Stayman/transfers as they are after 2C 2D 2NT.
    Jump raiseshows all key cards, slam-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTSerious 3NT, slam-forcing.
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2C - 2M - 2NT

    New suitNatural, bidding out your shape.
    Rebid first suit6-card suit, fixes trumps
    Jump in new suit unless Exclusion BlackwoodAuto-splinter, fixes trumps and shows singleton/void. Invites partner to take control and either sign off or bid RKC Blackwood, according to how well the hands seem to fit.
    Jump rebid first suitExtremely strong suit, either 7 cards or nearly solid 6-carder. Forcing, invites partner to take control and bid RKC Blackwood.
    3NTto play
    4NTquantitative
    5NTquantitative

    OPENER'S CONTINUATION AFTER 2C - 2M - 2NT - NEW SUIT

    Raise partner's second suitAgrees trumps. (Not Minorwood, even if the suit's a minor.)
    Revert to partner's first suitEncouraging, but with no natural bid available (i.e. no biddable 5-card suit of your own, can't agree either of partner's suits). 3NT would be discouraging. By implication, suggests a 4432 hand with a useful doubleton (already denied three) and trebleton in responder's first and second suits respectively. Might perhaps be suppressing a poor five-card suit.
    New suit5-card suit.
    3NTdiscouraging, non-forcing.
    4NTRKC Blackwood for responder's second suit.

    2C OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 3-LEVEL POSITIVE SUIT RESPONSE

    pass after doublePartial (doubleton) support for partner's suit, probably Hx.
    redoubleNot even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    New suitbiddable five-card suit
    Raisesuit agreement
    Jump raiseshows all key cards, slam-forcing
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTbalanced, probably 23-24
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER A POSITIVE SUIT RESPONSE TO 2C AND A JUMP RAISE FROM OPENER (ALL KEY CARDS)

    cheapest bidDenies the trump queen, so shows a six-card suit for a biddable suit for the positive. All other bids confirm it.
    new suitcue bid, second-round control
    no-trumpsbalanced 7-9
    jump in no-trumpsbalanced 10-12

    2C OPENER'S REBID AFTER JUMP-RAISING RESPONDER'S POSITIVE SUIT RESPONSE AND HEARING A QUEEN DENIAL

    any non-slam rebidno trump loser (AKQ or AKxx)
    new suitcue-bid, second-round control
    no-trumpsbalanced 23-24
    jump in no-trumpsbalanced 25-26

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2C-2NT

    3 of a suitnatural
    4 of a suitfixing trumps, RKC Blackwood responses
    4NT23-24 balanced, quantitative
    3NTbalanced, slam-forcing

    CONTINUATIONS AFTER 2C-2NT-3suit

    3NTdoubleton in the bid suit
    raise suit (major)trump support
    raise suit (minor)trump support, Minorwood
    New suitnatural, four-card suit

  • After this start, 4NT from either partner is, in order of preference:
  • (a) Blackwood for the last-bid major suit,
  • (b) Blackwood for the last-bid minor suit if you'd gone past Minorwood
  • (c) quantitative
  • CONTINUATIONS AFTER 2C-2NT-3NT

    4suitlooking for a 4-4 trump fit any 4NT bid agrees partner's last-bid suit and is Blackwood
    5suit if not preceded by Blackwoodpoint count
    C/D/H/S8/9/10/11 from responder
    C/D/H/S/NT25/26/27/28/29 from opener

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2C-3NT

    4 of a suitnatural, Tentative Blackwood responses (cheapest bid is negative)
    5 of a suitThree-suiter, shows void or singleton. Responder's next bid fixes trumps, with Blackwood responses.
    6 bidquantitative
    7 bidto play
    4NTlooking for 4-4 trump fits
    5NTasking for point count: 5C is 12, 5D is 13, etc.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2C-3NT-4suit AND A TENTATIVE BLACKWOOD NEGATIVE

    New suitnatural, Tentative Blackwood responses
    Rebid suitfixing trumps, RKC Blackwood responses
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    5NTasking for point count

    2C OPENER'S REBID AFTER A THREE-SUITED AUTO-SPLINTER

  • There is no way of asking about responder's possible five-card suit.

  • New suitSets trumps, RKC Blackwood responses. This is even still true after 2C 4D 5C, although this will lead to the occasional 6C-1.
    All bids in splintered suitto play
    Cheapest no-trump bidto play
    Jump in no-trumpsquantitative in no-trumps

    2C OPENER'S REBID AFTER A JUMP TO SHOW A SOLID SUIT

    Cheapest next bidasking for suit length - next bid is 6, next plus one is 7, etc.
    Higher suit bidscue bids
    Jump to slamto play, even if a different suit

    RESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2D

  • As with an opening 2NT, there is no invitational raise.
  • These sequences are often artificial, to get contracts played the right way up.
  • System remains on after a double, but the default agreement is that SYSTEM IS OFF after an overcall. This is in line with other strong, balanced openings (1NT, 2C). However we do have a small amount of cut-down system in those circumstances, as per the second table below instead: RESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2D AFTER AN OVERCALL

  • Passto play, weak with diamonds
    Pass after doubleOstensibly promising a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in diamonds if partner has some too. Opener is expected to redouble if holding four-card trump support or a very good three, e.g. AKx. However the fact that partner isn't allowed to pass out the double means that there's a second option: it might also be a waiting bid on a hand with a diamond void! There's unlikely to be ambiguity because even if the opponents pre-empt in diamonds, the assumed hand type will be doubling for penalties, while the second hand type (void) will probably keep bidding.
    RedoubleTo play, with a strong five-card suit. The 2D opener isn't allowed to pull the redouble. If the opponents try to run, all doubles are for penalties and no one is allowed to play the hand in an undoubled part-score.
    2H(a) transfer to no-trumps, either weak or slam-going or (b) with spades (including a hand that's 5-4 in the majors)
    2Stransfer to clubs
    2NT, but different responses if doubledtransfer to diamonds, game-forcing. (A hand that wanted to make a weak take-out in diamonds would simply pass the opening bid.)
    2NT after doubleCan't be a transfer to diamonds because such a hand would pass or redouble. Instead shows a game-forcing 4441 hand with a singleton diamond.
    3CFive-Card Stayman, game-forcing and promising a four-card major
    3Dtransfer to hearts
    3H, 3Stransfer to 3NT
    3NTmassive two-suiter in the minors
    4Cmassive two-suiter in the majors
    4D, 4H, 4S, 4NTtransfer to 4H, 4S, 5C and 5D respectively.
    5 of a suitSolid eight-card suit, which has to be at least AKQxxxxx, and nothing of significance in the other three suits. AKxxxxxx isn't enough because if missing three cards including the queen, there's a 22% chance of a 3-0 trump break. Partner's response is to play, even if it's in a different suit.
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT, wanting to play the hand. Unlikely to have a five-card suit, because such a hand has the option of transferring and then jumping to 5NT.
    any slamTo play and not a transfer, possibly holding extreme shape and concerned about an opposition sacrifice. The vulnerability will obviously make a big difference. Opener should be more cautious about an unexpected raise to seven than if responder had gone via a 3M 3NT relay sequence.

    RESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2D AFTER AN OVERCALL

    2NT.Mutant Lebensohl, forcing opener to bid 3C. The existence of this option doesn't change the meaning of other bids because it's only available when the opponents overcall 2H or 2S, so the rest of the system has to be able to cope with a bidding framework that either does or doesn't include Mutant Lebensohl.
    Cue-bidGame-forcing, expected to be a probe for 3NT. If this interpretation is or becomes impossible, then instead it was asking about opener's four-card suits.
    New suitNatural, at least a five-card suit, game-forcing. (This is in line with the equivalent situation after a 2C opening, rather than the one after a 1NT opening.) Makes no promise as to suit quality.
    Jump shift to four of a minor or 4NTAce-asking.
    Other jump shiftTo play (even if below game) and possibly pre-emptive.
    DoubleTake-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double and then keep bidding even when partner pulls it is game-forcing and natural (showing only a four-card suit) up to 3NT and a slam try above it, agreeing partner's suit. If you really want to play in a part-score, either bid Mutant Lebensohl or else pass and hope partner finds a reopening double, then make your non-forcing bid. Those are the only two ways of making a non-forcing response... everything else is forcing.

    FINN AND DAVID'S DEFENCE TO AN OPENING 18-20 BALANCED 2D

  • All such bids are to be assumed to be weak and pre-emptive, so a reply from partner is non-forcing. Obviously this only applies to a strong opening, with Weak Twos being treated like any other Weak Two and so on.

  • Doublethe majors
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D (DOUBLE) 2NT (game-forcing 4441)

    3DHighly suitable hand for slam, with a suitable trump suit (as yet undisclosed) and few wasted values in diamonds. Partner will relay with 3H and then opener will show their chosen trump suit.
    3 of another suitNatural with at least a few points in diamonds, because of the failure to bid 3D.
    3NTto play, with a good diamond holding.
    4D4333 hand with poor diamonds, asking partner to bid a major-suit game of their choice on a seven-card fit. (Partner will probably bid hearts if in doubt, because they'll be able to run to spades if doubled.) It won't be a lovely contract, but it'll be better than 3NT.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D (DOUBLE) 2NT (game-forcing 4441) 3D (slam-going) 3H ("what's trumps?")

    3Sspades
    3NTclubs, asking partner to bid Minorwood
    4Cclubs, taking control and bidding Minorwood for himself
    4Hhearts, asking partner to bid Blackwood
    4NTBlackwood in hearts. Had opener's suit been spades, he'd have agreed them immediately with a forcing 3S instead of leaping straight to 4NT.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D (DOUBLE) PASS (either four non-horrible diamonds or none at all)

    RedoubleEither four diamonds or three very good ones, e.g. AKx
    2NTUnable to redouble, no five-card suit.
    Any other bidUnable to redouble, five-card suit.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D (DOUBLE) PASS REDOUBLE

  • All void-showing continuations unlock Blackwood or Minorwood (the cheapest suit if necessary) if opener's hand is suitable.

  • PassTo play and the only response that shows diamonds. Pulling the redouble shows a diamond void and is game-forcing.
    2NT5-5 in clubs and hearts.
    3D5-5 in clubs and spades.
    Any other suit at the 3-levelNatural, five-card suit.
    3NT5440 with a bad five-card suit.
    4CExclusion Minorwood with a diamond void, clubs being trumps.
    4DSeven-card club suit with a diamond void, invitational.
    4 of a majorSeven-card suit with a diamond void, invitational.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D (DOUBLE) PASS 2NT (unable to redouble, no five-card suit)

  • No-trump continuations (including pass) show diamonds. All other continuations are game-forcing with a diamond void and unlock Blackwood or Minorwood (the cheapest suit if necessary) if opener's hand is suitable.

  • PassThe only response that isn't game-forcing.
    3D5440 with a bad five-card suit.
    Any other suitNatural, five-card suit.
    3NTto play
    4CExclusion Minorwood with a diamond void, clubs being trumps.
    4DSeven-card club suit with a diamond void, invitational.
    4 of a majorSeven-card suit with a diamond void, invitational.
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D (DOUBLE) PASS SUIT (five-card suit)

    PassTo play. All other responses are game-forcing, although with many of them there's no way of telling whether responder has four or zero diamonds.
    Diamondsdiamond void
    No-trumpsnatural
    Raiseagrees partner's suit
    New suitnatural, four-card suit
    4CExclusion Minorwood with a diamond void, clubs being trumps.
    4DSeven-card club suit with a diamond void, invitational.
    4 of a majorSeven-card suit with a diamond void, invitational.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H (TRANSFER TO NO-TRUMPS)

  • * 2D 2H IS NOT THE DEFAULT RELAY. Most hands should not be replying 2H to 2D and it's a mistake to do so simply on the grounds that it's a cheap bid and tells you more about opener's hand. It's unsuitable for most circumstances and probably won't let you stop in 3NT.
  • * HAND TYPES THAT CAN BID THE 2H RELAY: (a) weak hands that are intending to stop in part-score in no-trumps or spades, (b) hands of any strength that want to show spades, (c) a game-going hand with 5-4 in the majors, (d) a more vaguely defined class of hands that are thinking of playing a high-level contract in a minor, although might not end up doing so.
  • * DO NOT RELY ON THIS SUMMARY. It's an approximate guideline of what comes next, not a road map. Responder's continuations after opener's rebid (below) are complex and there are exceptions to what I'm about to say here. This block of text isn't trying to prescribe rules in detail, but merely attempting to give an idea of the overall flavour in what might have seemed a bewildering array of options. There will certainly be specific sequences for which the following is incorrect.
  • * AFTER TWO-LEVEL RESPONSES, there's a Stayman-like 3C bid showing at least 5-4 in the majors, a flexible transfer that allows under/super-accepts (3D) and a strict transfer (3H) to spades that doesn't give opener the option.
  • * FOUR-LEVEL REBIDS FROM RESPONDER can have various meanings, but generally promise a spade suit, which is one of the main purposes of the 2D 2H relay sequence.
  • * HIGHER REBIDS FROM RESPONDER follow the usual rules for Exclusion Blackwood, Complete Two-Suiters and so on, promising a spade suit.

  • Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    2Sany five-card suit, mustn't be horrible
    2NTdenying a five-card suit (but might be suppressing a horrible one)
    3C, 3D, 3Hnatural, 4-card suit in a 5422 hand with five spades
    3Ssix spades

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-3H (TRANSFER TO NO-TRUMPS)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3NTalways, if no intervention

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-3S (TRANSFER TO NO-TRUMPS)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    3NTalways, if no intervention

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D 2H (DBLE) PASS/REDBLE (SHOWING HEARTS)

    Passto play
    Redoublegame-forcing strength. All doubles from now on are for penalty and the final contract can't be an undoubled part-score.
    2SFREE BID THANKS TO DOUBLE. Relay to 2NT, doesn't want to play in hearts. Continuations after that will be as if the bidding had gone 2D 2H 2NT.
    2NTFREE BID THANKS TO DOUBLE. Weak with six spades, invitational. Will be taken as 4-6 points, although it might be an excellent 3 or a very bad 7. (Has the same meaning as 2D 2H 2S 3S.)
    3CStayman-like, showing 5-4 or 5-5 in the majors. Game-forcing.
    3DTransfer to spades. Under- and super-accepts permitted, game-forcing.
    3HTransfer to spades, no super-accepts permitted. Opener must reply 3S.
    3SAsking about four-card minors
    3NTStrong slam interest, asks partner to start bidding non-horrible 4-card suits upwards
    4C, 4D, 4HSplinter, agreeing spades. Unlocks Blackwood.
    4Sto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood in spades
    5C, 5D, 5HExclusion Blackwood in spades.
    5SQuantitative invitation to 6S
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamto play

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D 2H (DBLE) PASS/REDBLE 2S (relay to 2NT)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    2NTexpected response

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D 2H (DBLE) PASS/REDBLE 2S (DBLE) AND ANOTHER PASS/REDBLE

  • NOTE: theoretically it's a waste of bidding space to have all the usual spade options here, when a hand that really had spades might be expected to pass or redouble. However this is such an unlikely auction that it seems simplest to keep the higher-level bids consistent with other, similar, situations, for ease of remembering. It's also quite likely that if the opposition are doubling and doubling, despite one of us having opened 2D, then it's likely that they're either taking the piss or have a sophisticated bidding philosophy (and specific conventional meanings) to disrupt our auction in situations like this. In both of these situations, it seems unwise to try to build too much sophistication on assumptions about what the opponents' bids might mean.

  • Passto play
    Redoublegame-forcing strength. All doubles from now on are for penalty and the final contract can't be an undoubled part-score.
    2NTweak, to play
    3CStayman-like, showing 5-4 or 5-5 in the majors. Game-forcing.
    3DTransfer to spades. Under- and super-accepts permitted, game-forcing.
    3HTransfer to spades, no super-accepts permitted. Opener must reply 3S.
    3SAsking about four-card minors
    3NTStrong slam interest, asks partner to start bidding non-horrible 4-card suits upwards
    4C, 4D, 4HSplinter, agreeing spades. Unlocks Blackwood.
    4Sto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood in spades
    5C, 5D, 5HExclusion Blackwood in spades.
    5SQuantitative invitation to 6S
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamto play

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D 2H (DBLE) PASS/REDBLE 2NT (weak with six spades, invitational)

    new suittrial bid
    3Sto play
    any gameto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2S (FIVE-CARD SUIT)

    Passto play
    Redoublegame-forcing strength. All doubles from now on are for penalty and the final contract can't be an undoubled part-score.
    2NT"what's your five-card suit?"
    3CStayman-like, showing 5-4 or 5-5 in the majors. Game-forcing.
    3DTransfer to spades. Under- and super-accepts permitted, game-forcing.
    3HTransfer to spades, no super-accepts permitted. Opener must reply 3S.
    3SAsking about four-card minors
    3NTStrong slam interest, asks partner to start bidding non-horrible 4-card suits upwards
    4C, 4D, 4HSplinter, agreeing spades. Unlocks Blackwood.
    4Sto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood in spades
    5C, 5D, 5HExclusion Blackwood in spades.
    5SQuantitative invitation to 6S
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2NT (NO BIDDABLE FIVE-CARD SUIT)

    Passto play
    Redoublegame-forcing strength. All doubles from now on are for penalty and the final contract can't be an undoubled part-score.
    3CStayman-like, showing 5-4 or 5-5 in the majors. Game-forcing.
    3DTransfer to spades. Under- and super-accepts permitted, game-forcing.
    3HTransfer to spades, no super-accepts permitted. Opener must reply 3S.
    3SAsking about four-card minors
    3NTStrong slam interest, asks partner to start bidding non-horrible 4-card suits upwards
    4C, 4D, 4HSplinter, agreeing spades. Unlocks Blackwood.
    4Sto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood in spades
    5C, 5D, 5HExclusion Blackwood in spades.
    5SQuantitative invitation to 6S
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-3C (5422 with 4 clubs and 5 spades)

    Passto play
    Redoubleto play, promising at least game-going values
    3Dtrial bid
    3Htransfer to 3S
    3SAgrees spades, game-forcing. (Weak hands will transfer via 3H.)
    3NTSerious 3NT for an as-yet unspecified suit (might be clubs!)
    4 of new suitSplinter, unlocks Two-Suited Minorwood or Blackwood
    4Cagrees clubs, Minorwood
    4S, 5Cto play
    4NTTwo-Suited Blackwood
    5 of new suitTwo-Suited Exclusion Blackwood
    5SQuantitative invitation to six
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-3D (5422 with 4 diamonds and 5 spades)

    Passto play
    Redoubleto play, promising at least game-going values
    3Htransfer to 3S
    3SAgrees spades, game-forcing. (Weak hands will transfer via 3H.)
    3NTSerious 3NT for an as-yet unspecified suit (might be diamonds!)
    4 of new suitSplinter, unlocks Two-Suited Minorwood or Blackwood
    4Dagrees diamonds, Minorwood
    4S, 5Dto play
    4NTTwo-Suited Blackwood
    5 of new suitTwo-Suited Exclusion Blackwood
    5SQuantitative invitation to six
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-3H (5422 with 4 hearts and 5 spades)

    Passto play
    Redoubleto play, promising at least game-going values
    3Sto play
    3NTSerious 3NT for an as-yet unspecified major
    4C, 4DSplinter for an as-yet unspecified major, unlocks Blackwood.
    4H, 4Sto play
    4NTTwo-suited Blackwood
    5C, 5DTwo-suited Exclusion Blackwood
    5H, 5SQuantitative invitation to six
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H AND OPENER PROVING TO BE SINGLE-SUITED IN SPADES

    Passto play
    Redoubleto play, promising at least game-going values
    3NTSerious 3NT, agreeing spades.
    4C, 4D, 4HSplinter, unlocks Blackwood.
    4Sto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    5C, 5D, 5HExclusion Blackwood
    5SQuantitative invitation to 6S
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamto play

    RESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2D VIA A 3H RELAY to 3NT

    4C, 4Dmassive two-suiter in the two bid suits
    4H, 4STo play.
    4NTQuantitative invitation to 6NT. Unlikely to have a five-card suit, because such a hand has the option of transferring and then jumping to 4NT.
    5 of a suitSolid six-card suit, which has to be at least AKQJxx, and no high cards of significance in the other three suits. Partner's response is to play, even if it's in a different suit.
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT. Unlikely to have a five-card suit, because such a hand has the option of transferring and then jumping to 5NT.
    any slamTo play, at the six-level showing a no-loser trump suit and an outside ace. Not a transfer.

    RESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2D VIA A 3S RELAY to 3NT

    4C, 4Dmassive two-suiter in the two bid suits
    4H, 4STo play.
    4NTQuantitative invitation to 6NT. Unlikely to have a five-card suit, because such a hand has the option of transferring and then jumping to 4NT.
    5 of a suitSolid seven-card suit, which has to be at least AKQxxxx, and nothing of significance in the other three suits. Partner's response is to play, even if it's in a different suit.
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT. Unlikely to have a five-card suit, because such a hand has the option of transferring and then jumping to 5NT.
    any slamTo play, at the six-level showing a no-loser trump suit and no outside aces. Not a transfer.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2S-2NT ("WHAT'S YOUR FIVE-CARD SUIT?")

    3Cfive clubs
    3Dfive diamonds
    3Hfive hearts
    3Sfive spades, probably in a 5332 hand since there were other responses for 5422 hands with five spades

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2S-2NT-3C (five clubs)

    PassTo play. All other bids game-forcing.
    RedoubleTo play, promising at least game-going values.
    3D, 3HNatural, 4-card suit
    3SNatural and forcing, showing a hand with 5+ spades that stopped off to find out about opener's five-card suit along the way.
    3NTSerious 3NT, agreeing opener's trump suit even though it's a minor.
    4CMinorwood
    New suit at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    New suit at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter, which seems unlikely but is at least consistent with how the system generally works.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2S-2NT-3D (five diamonds)

    PassTo play. All other bids game-forcing.
    RedoubleTo play, promising at least game-going values.
    3HNatural, 4-card suit
    3SNatural and forcing, showing a hand with 5+ spades that stopped off to find out about opener's five-card suit along the way.
    3NTSerious 3NT, agreeing opener's trump suit even though it's a minor.
    4CNatural, 4-card suit
    4DMinorwood
    New suit at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    New suit at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter, which seems unlikely but is at least consistent with how the system generally works.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2S-2NT-3H ("FIVE HEARTS")

    PassTo play. All other bids game-forcing.
    RedoubleTo play, promising at least game-going values.
    3SNatural and forcing, showing a hand with 5+ spades that stopped off to find out about opener's five-card suit along the way.
    3NTSerious 3NT, agreeing hearts.
    New suit at 4 levelSplinter, agreeing hearts.
    New suit at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    New suit at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter, which seems unlikely but is at least consistent with how the system generally works.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2X-3D (spade transfer with under/super-accepts)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleShows a good five-card suit, or alternatively if that's impossible given the earlier bidding then an outstandingly good four-card suit (at least AKQx).
    3H2 spades, after which a 3S continuation from responder is a transfer to 3NT
    3S3 spades
    3NT4+ spades with side-suit
    4C4 spades with no non-horrible side suit
    4D5 spades with no non-horrible side suit
    4S6 spades

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2X-3D-3H (under-accept in spades)

    passto play
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleShows a good five-card suit, or alternatively if that's impossible given the earlier bidding then an outstandingly good four-card suit (at least AKQx).
    3Stransfer to 3NT
    3NTSerious 3NT agreeing spades
    4 of a minorNatural and game-forcing, still looking for a minor-suit trump fit since the spades are known to be 5-2. The partnership can now bid suits upwards, with 4H agreeing the last-bid suit (after which 4S is Minorwood), 4S being to play even though it's only a 5-2 fit and 4NT meaning "we don't have a suit fit".
    4HSplinter, unlocking RKC Blackwood. (Can't be natural because a hand that's 5-4 in the majors would have bid 2D 2H 2X 3C.)
    4Sto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    5Squantitative invitation to six
    5 of new suitExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to seven
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2X-3D/H-3S (transfer to 3S)

    passto play
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleShows a good five-card suit, or alternatively if that's impossible given the earlier bidding then an outstandingly good four-card suit (at least AKQx).
    3NTSerious 3NT agreeing spades
    4 of new suitSplinter, unlocking RKC Blackwood
    4Sto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    5 of new suitExclusion Blackwood
    5Squantitative invitation to six
    5NTquantitative invitation to seven
    any slamto play

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2NT/3m-3S ("ASKING ABOUT FOUR-CARD MINORS")

    3NTdenying a 4-card minor
    4 of a minor4+-card suit. With both minors, don't automatically bid clubs as the lower of the two but instead choose the better suit.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2NT/3m-3S-3NT (denying a four-card minor)

    passto play
    4C, 4DMinorwood
    4H, 4Sshows 4441 with both minors and the bid major, unlocks Blackwood for opener (which they bid with the cheapest available bid that isn't 4NT, since a direct 4NT rebid from opener is natural and to play).
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NT
    5C, 5Dto play
    5H, 5SExclusion Blackwood for an undefined trump suit, so opener can only regard themselves as holding the trump king/queen if they have all three of the non-excluded kings/queens.
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NT
    any slamto play

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-any-3S-4m (showing a four-card minor)

    passto play (unlikely)
    raise to gameto play
    cheapest new suitMinorwood
    other new suitcue bid
    jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelExclusion Blackwood, since responder certainly wouldn't have followed this bidding sequence with a complete two-suiter.
    any slamto play

    2D OPENER'S REBIDS AFTER A 2S TRANSFER TO CLUBS

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card spade suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card spade suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    -1doubleton
    transfer suit3-card trump support
    +1super-accept with a useful side-suit
    +2super-accept with four trumps and no useful side-suit
    +3super-accept with five trumps and no useful side-suit
    jump a levelsuper-accept with six trumps

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D 2S (club transfer) (DBLE) PASS/REDBLE

    Passto play
    Redoubleto play, showing strength and spade tolerance. All doubles are now for penalties and no one is allowed to play the hand in an undoubled part-score.
    New suitgame-forcing, natural
    2NTgame-forcing, invites partner to support clubs, bid a four-card suit or say 3NT (if unable to do anything else).
    pass/3Cto play
    3NTto play
    4 of known minorMinorwood
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    Game or slam in known minorto play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D 2S (club transfer) AND RESPONSE

    New suitgame-forcing, natural
    pass/3Cto play
    3NTto play
    4 of known minorMinorwood
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    Game or slam in known minorto play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    2D OPENER'S REBIDS AFTER A 2NT GAME-FORCING TRANSFER TO DIAMONDS

    -1doubleton
    transfer suit3-card trump support
    +1super-accept with a useful side-suit
    +2super-accept with four trumps and no useful side-suit
    +3super-accept with five trumps and no useful side-suit
    jump a levelsuper-accept with six trumps

    2D OPENER'S REBIDS AFTER A 2NT GAME-FORCING TRANSFER TO DIAMONDS AND A DOUBLE FROM THE OPPOSITION

  • It's the same principle as DOPI/ROPI.

  • Redoubledoubleton
    Pass after double3-card trump support
    3Csuper-accept with a useful side-suit
    3Dsuper-accept with four diamonds and no useful side-suit
    3Hsuper-accept with five diamonds and no useful side-suit
    3Ssuper-accept with six diamonds

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D 2NT (diamonds) (DBLE) PASS/REDBLE

  • No-trump bids are unnecessary because even if the partnership has a slam available, they're going to score better making the same tricks in 2NT redoubled.

  • pass/redoubleto play
    3Dunbalanced and/or slam-going, fixes diamonds as trumps. Start of cue-bidding sequence! This breaks the rule of "no cue-bidding at the three-level".
    3 of another suitshowing a second suit
    4Cauto-splinter, unlocking Minorwood
    4DMinorwood
    diamond game or slamto play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D 2NT (diamonds) 3C (doubleton)

    New suitgame-forcing, natural
    3Dunbalanced and/or slam-going, fixes diamonds as trumps. Start of cue-bidding sequence! This breaks the rule of "no cue-bidding at the three-level".
    3NTto play
    4 of known minorMinorwood
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    Game or slam in known minorto play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D 2NT (diamonds) 3D (3-card support)

    New suitgame-forcing, natural
    3NTto play
    4 of known minorMinorwood
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    Game or slam in known minorto play
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-3D (TRANSFER TO HEARTS)

    transfer suitexpected response, showing two or three hearts
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    +1super-accept with a useful side-suit
    +2super-accept with four trumps and no useful side-suit
    +3super-accept with five trumps and no useful side-suit
    jump a levelsuper-accept with six trumps

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-3D-3H

    3SOffering choice of 3NT or 4H. Shows five hearts and says nothing about spades.
    3NTsix hearts, four spades
    4 of a minor5-card side-suit. If only had four, would have rebid 3S instead.
    4Hsix-card suit, to play, mild slam try because you didn't bid 2D-4D-4H
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-3D-3H-3S (FIVE HEARTS, GAME-FORCING)

    3NTdoubleton heart
    4Cheart fit, four clubs
    4Dheart fit, four diamonds but denying a club suit
    4Hheart fit and no four-card minor, so must have a spade suit

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-3D-3H-3S-3NT (DOUBLETON HEART, TO PLAY)

    passto play
    4Cnatural, four clubs
    4Dnatural, four diamonds
    4Hsix-card suit, to play, mild slam try
    New suit at Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    4NTRKC Blackwood for hearts
    New suit at Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-3D-3H-3NT (SIX HEARTS AND FOUR SPADES)

    4C9-card heart fit but no spade fit, 4NT continuation from responder is Blackwood for hearts
    4D9-card heart fit, four spades, 4NT continuation from responder is Two-Suited Blackwood
    4Hdoubleton heart and no spade fit, 4NT continuation from responder is Blackwood for hearts
    4Sdoubleton heart, four spades, 4NT continuation from responder is Two-Suited Blackwood

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2D-4C (MASSIVE TWO-SUITER IN THE MAJORS)

    4Ddoubleton in both majors
    4 majorchoosing that suit
    4NTgolden hand for hearts
    5Cgolden hand for spades

    2D OPENER'S RESPONSE TO A 3NT MINOR-ASK

    4 minorchoosing that suit
    4Hneither minor

    2D OPENER'S REBID AFTER BEING SHOWN A MASSIVE MAJOR-MINOR TWO-SUITER

    cheapest bidthe minor
    +1doubleton in both
    +2the major

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER SHOWING A MASSIVE TWO-SUITER

    agreed suitto play.
    cheapest bidTwo-Suited Blackwood, counting both queens unless if opener has a doubleton in the second suit and has good enough trumps to be able to ruff safely in the one he chose.
    +1 ignoring trumpsExclusion Two-Suited Blackwood, void is lower suit.
    +2 ignoring trumpsExclusion Two-Suited Blackwood, void is higher suit.

    MUTANT LEBENSOHL

  • I dislike Lebensohl because I like having a natural 2NT available, but it makes sense to use a mutated version of it after the opponents intervene with two of a major over our opening 2D bids. The 2NT bid forces opener to bid 3C, after which...

  • passTo play.
    3 of a new suitWeak, to play.
    3 in the overcalled suitShows a stopper in the overcalled suit and at least one four-card major, game-forcing.
    3NTto play, showing a stopper.

    RESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2NT

  • The purpose of transfers after an opening 2NT is to find a trump fit on hands that don't know where they want to play. There isn't room to use them for delicate investigation on hands that know what trumps will be, but want to know more about partner's hand anyway.
  • System remains on after a double, but is turned off after an overcall.

  • Passto play
    3CStayman (ordinary four-card)
    3Dtransfer to hearts
    3Htransfer to spades
    3Stransfer to clubs
    3NTto play
    4C, 4D, 4H, 4STransfer to next suit. Super-accepts are banned at the four level.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5 of a minorto play
    5 of a major"pick a slam", 5440 shape with a void in the bid suit.
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamTo play, showing a no-loser trump suit at the six level. Not a transfer.
    Cue-bid after overcallTake-out, game-forcing, likely to have slam interest.
    New suit after overcallNatural, at least a five-card suit, game-forcing. Makes no promise as to suit quality.
    Jump shift after overcallIf four of a minor or 4NT, it's ace-asking. Otherwise it's to play and possibly pre-emptive.
    DoubleTake-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double and then keep bidding even when partner pulls it is game-forcing and natural (showing only a four-card suit) up to 3NT or else above that a slam try, agreeing partner's suit. If you want to play in a part-score, all you can do is pass and hope partner finds a reopening double, then make your non-forcing bid.
    RedoubleWants to double the opponents for penalties.

    DEFENCE TO AN OPENING STRONG 2NT

  • All such bids are to be assumed to be weak and pre-emptive, so a reply from partner is non-forcing.

  • Doublethe majors
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2NT-3D (TRANSFER TO HEARTS)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    cheapest bidexpected response
    +1super-accept with a useful side-suit
    +2super-accept with four trumps and no useful side-suit
    +3super-accept with five trumps and no useful side-suit
    +4golden hand, 10 tricks opposite a Yarborough.
    jump a levelsuper-accept with six trumps
    4NTfreak hand that can nearly make slam by itself, 5422 or 6322
    jump in other suitfreak hand that can nearly make slam by itself, 5422 or 6322, specifying the side-suit

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER 2NT-3H (TRANSFER TO SPADES)

    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    cheapest bidexpected response
    +1super-accept with a useful side-suit
    +2super-accept with four trumps and no useful side-suit
    +3super-accept with five trumps and no useful side-suit
    +4golden hand, 10 tricks opposite a Yarborough.
    jump a levelsuper-accept with six trumps
    4NTfreak hand that can nearly make slam by itself, 5422 or 6322
    jump in other suitfreak hand that can nearly make slam by itself, 5422 or 6322, specifying the side-suit

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2NT TRANSFER AND +4 "GOLDEN" SUPER-ACCEPT

    trump suitto play
    minimum rebid of transfer suitre-transfer
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    other new suitExclusion Blackwood
    jump to 5 of trump suitExclusion Blackwood for transfer suit

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2NT TRANSFER AND A "FREAK" 4NT JUMP FROM OPENER

    trump suitto play
    minimum rebid of transfer suitre-transfer
    minimum bid above trumpsRKC Blackwood
    other new suitExclusion Blackwood

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2NT TRANSFER AND A "FREAK" SUIT JUMP FROM OPENER

    trump suitto play
    minimum rebid of transfer suitre-transfer
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    minimum bid above trumps if 4NT has been bypassedRKC Blackwood
    other new suitExclusion Blackwood

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2NT-3D-3H

    new suitnatural, not Minorwood (such hands have to go via Stayman instead)
    3Snatural, five hearts and four spades
    3NToffering a choice of games
    4 of the known majormild slam invitation, unlocking Blackwood, because the transfer wasn't directly at the 4-level.
    4NTRKC Blackwood (quantitative hands bid 4NT via a four-level transfer)
    New suit at the 5-levelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative

    RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2NT-3H-3S

    3NToffering a choice of games
    new suitnatural, not Minorwood (such hands have to go via Stayman instead)
    4 of the known majormild slam invitation, unlocking Blackwood, because the transfer wasn't directly at the 4-level.
    4NTRKC Blackwood (quantitative hands bid 4NT via a four-level transfer)
    New suit at the 5-levelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative

    AUCTIONS AFTER A WEAK TWO

    2NTOgust, even when responder is a passed hand.
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTTo play
    4NTBlackwood, even if partner's suit's a minor
    Any raiseTo play, possibly pre-emptive. It's never Minorwood.
    New suit bidForcing, unless the opponents have intervened or unless opener's Weak Two was in third seat after two passes.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    DEFENCE TO WEAK TWO

  • Shows sound opening values and a good suit, following the principle of "overcall the opponents' weak bids with good hands and their good bids with weak hands". 2NT overcall shows the same hand as a 1NT overcall.

  • Doubletake-out up to 4H
    Suit overcallnatural, with sound opening values and a good suit
    2NTNatural, 15-17. Responses use nearly the same system as that after a 2NT opening.
    Jump to 3 of a majorSolid, self-supporting six-card suit, e.g. AKQJxx.
    3-level cue bidinviting partner to say 3NT if they have something in the opponents' suit
    Jump to 3NTTo play, but unbalanced, e.g. a long minor.
    4-level cue bid"Leaping Michaels", 5-5 shape, either minors or majors
    4 of a minor"Leaping Michaels", 5-5 with a major
    4NT over four-level pre-emptany two-suiter, with two places to play

    AUCTIONS AFTER A WEAK JUMP OVERCALL

    New suit bidForcing, unless the opponents have intervened or unless opener's Weak Two was in third seat after two passes.
    Any raiseTo play, possibly pre-emptive. It's never Minorwood.
    2NTnatural and strong, inviting 3NT
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTTo play
    4NTBlackwood, even if partner's suit's a minor
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    OPENER'S REPLIES TO OGUST

  • The slight glib statement below of "points" is allowed to take into account hand strength in general, not just the unvarnished point count. For example, AK8652 J4 842 105 might say 3D ("bad points, good suit"), but the following hand with the same high cards would be more likely to say 3S ("good points, good suit")... AK8652 J4 8 10542. The assessment is also likely to take into account the vulnerability and other factors in the context of the auction, e.g. 1st/2nd/3rd seat, whether it was a Weak Two or a Weak Jump Overcall and if the latter, what the opposition had bid, etc.

  • pass after interventionno longer able to make the correct reply to the 2NT relay
    doublepenalties
    redoublemaximum points
    3C/Dbad points, bad/good suit (even after intervention)
    3H/Sgood points, bad/good suit (even after intervention)
    3NTsolid suit
    4 of new suitvoid-showing splinter, decent playing strength
    4 of your own suit7-card suit that didn't like to open at the 3 level for whatever reason seemed good at the time, hand useless in no-trumps

    DEFENCE TO OGUST (AFTER WEAK TWO IN MAJOR)

  • This is nearly the same system as our defence to 1NT + a major-suit transfer.

  • passMight be a waiting bid from a strong hand.
    DoublePenalties, strong. Would normally show the majors, but this meaning has become redundant.
    responder's real suittake-out
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    DEFENCE TO OGUST (AFTER WEAK TWO IN MINOR)

  • This is the same system as our defence to 1NT + a minor-suit transfer.

  • passMight be a waiting bid from a strong hand.
    Doublethe majors
    responder's real suittake-out
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)The bid's default meaning, e.g. strong and natural, or 4NT Blackwood. Might have been expected to show the minors, but this conventional meaning has just become redundant.
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    AUCTIONS AFTER A PRE-EMPT

    Any raiseTo play. Minorwood doesn't apply.
    New suit below gameForcing in an uncontested auction.
    New suit after intervention (not counting double)Natural, non-forcing.
    New suit at game levelTo play.
    3NTTo play.
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    Jump in new suitExclusion Blackwood.

    DEFENCE TO PRE-EMPT

    Doubletake-out up to 4H
    Suit overcallnatural, with sound opening values and a good suit
    3NTTo play, probably with 15-17 although might be under pressure. All further bids by the partnership are game-forcing.
    4-level cue bid"Leaping Michaels", 5-5 shape, either minors or majors
    4 of a minor"Leaping Michaels", 5-5 with a major
    4NT over four-level pre-emptany two-suiter, with two places to play

    AUCTIONS AFTER A GAMBLING 3NT

    Pass/redoubleto play
    4Dshape-asking, wanting to know about partner's singletons.
    either minor at any level, except 4Dpass-or-correct, e.g. with strong holdings in the majors, a diamond void and four small clubs you might bid a pass-or-correct 5D.
    4 of a majorto play
    4NT4 top tricks, asks opener to bid 6NT with an eight-card suit.
    4+NT if a passed hand"please bid your minor", like a pass-or-correct 5C except that partner is definitely going to play the hand.
    5 of a majorLooking for a grand slam in partner's suit. Shows a hand that's ruffing the splintered suit (either void or stiff ace) and exactly three top tricks in the other suits. Partner should bid the grand slam if holding something like 7321 with three cards in the splintered suit, i.e. has enough length opposite partner's shortage that you'll get enough ruffs for the grand slam, while there's no need for more than three top tricks in the other suits.
    5NT5 top tricks, asks opener to bid 7NT with an eight-card suit. With only a seven-card suit, they bid 6NT.
    any slamto play

    DEFENCE TO A GAMBLING 3NT

    Doublepenalties
    Suit overcallnatural, game-forcing
    4NT overcallStone Age Blackwood (4C is 0/4 aces, 4D is 1 ace, etc.)

    OPENER'S RESPONSES TO A SHAPE-ASKING DIAMOND INQUIRY

    majorsingleton in that suit
    NT7222
    minorsingleton in the other minor

    AUCTIONS AFTER AN ACOL 4NT

    5Cno aces
    5 suit1 ace, of bid suit
    5NT1 ace, of clubs
    6C/D/H2 aces, of which you're bidding the lower one
    6S3 aces
    6NT4 aces

  • Acol 4NT is a good practical opening on, say, 2 void AKQJ6432 KQJ10.
  • If nothing else, it makes it hard for the opponents to get into the auction.
  • AUCTIONS AFTER AN ACOL 4NT IF THE OPPONENTS DOUBLED

    passno aces
    redbleno aces, but a strong hand
    5 suit1 ace, of bid suit
    5NT2 aces, non-touching
    6C/D/Hthe lower of two touching aces
    6S3 aces
    6NT4 aces

    AUCTIONS AFTER AN OPENING 5NT

    6Cno kings
    6 suitcue-bidding kings, starting with the cheapest one
    6NTclub king
    7Call four kings

    AUCTIONS AFTER AN OPENING 5NT IF THE OPPONENTS DOUBLED

    passno kings
    redbleno kings, but a strong hand
    6 suitcue-bidding kings, starting with the cheapest one
    6NTall four kings

    BOTH PARTNERS HAVE BID IN A NON-GAME-FORCING AUCTION AND THE OPPONENTS HAVE MADE A TAKEOUT DOUBLE

    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.

    BOTH PARTNERS HAVE BID IN A GAME-FORCING AUCTION AND THE OPPONENTS MAKE A TAKEOUT DOUBLE

    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    redoubleNot even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.

    THE PARTNERSHIP HAVE BID AND SUPPORTED A SUIT AND THE OPPONENTS MAKE A TAKEOUT DOUBLE

    pass after doubleNot interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.
    redoubleShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER PARTNER REPLIES 1NT AND AND THE OPPONENTS MAKE A TAKEOUT DOUBLE

    pass after doubleNatural, nothing to say.
    redoubleStrong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.

    OPENING ONE OF A MAJOR AND REBIDDING A JUMP TO 3NT

    3NTBased on a long, solid suit, i.e. akin to the equivalent bid had the opening bid instead been one of a minor. Shows a hand with lots of tricks off the top (seven or eight if partner is weak). Any continuation except four of opener's suit is investigating slam.

    CONVENTIONS AND SLAM INQUIRIES

    SPLINTERS

    Sign off in gameNo interest in looking for slam. Suggests a hand with values in the splinter suit that has been worsened, or at least not improved, by the bid.
    Cue-bidA hand that's interested in co-operating, but doesn't want to take immediate control with Blackwood, jumping to slam, etc. Might be, for instance, a minimum hand but with nothing wasted in the splinter suit. Further continuations might include taking control (if holding a suitable hand) or making further cue bids (co-operating, but not promising further extras).
    Blackwood-like bidstaking control, looking for slam.

    3041 RKCB (Roman Key Card Blackwood)

  • 4NT asks for Key Cards (aces and the king of trumps), with the implied trumps being the partnership's last bid suit if there hasn't been suit agreement. We used to play 4130, but this can be inconvenient when playing Exclusion Blackwood.
  • A hand that made a strong balanced opening (e.g. 1NT, 2D, 2NT) can't bid Blackwood or Minorwood unless their partner has made a bid that specifically "unlocks" it, e.g. a splinter. Until that happens, their their bids of 4m or 4NT are natural.
  • If the opponents sacrifice over our game contract, preventing us from making an ace-asking bid, then the cheapest non-sign-off bid takes on the meaning of RKC Blackwood instead.

  • +1 (e.g. 4NT 5C)30
    +2 (e.g. 4NT 5D)41
    +3 (e.g. 4NT 5H)2 or 5
    +4 (e.g. 4NT 5S)2 or 5 with the trump queen
    +5 (e.g. 4NT 5NT)2 or 5 with the trump queen, but Screaming
    any jump bidthe same Key Cards as the equivalent non-jump, but Screaming

  • A Screaming rebid suggests something vital to tell the Blackwood bidder.
  • This is traditionally a void.
  • CONTINUATIONS BY THE 4NT BIDDER:

  • Over 5C/D, bid cheapest non-trump denomination to ask about the trump queen. Any continuation other than a sign-off or a queen-ask is a grand slam probe with king cue-bids and hence confirms that the partnership has no missing key cards and that there's no worry about the queen of trumps.

  • nosigns off in five of the agreed suit
    yesany other bid, if possible cue-bidding a king; if not then 5NT.

    DOPI/ROPI, i.e. responses when opponents intervene over Blackwood:

    (re)doubleequivalent of 5C
    passequivalent of 5D
    cheapest bidequivalent of 5H
    second-cheapest bidequivalent of 5S

    STONE AGE BLACKWOOD

  • Asks for aces, in certain rare circumstances when suit agreement is impossible. A 5NT follow-up asks for specific kings.

  • 5C0 or 4 aces
    5D1 ace
    5H2 aces
    5S3 aces
    6CScreaming 0 or 4 aces
    6DScreaming 1 ace
    6HScreaming 2 aces
    6SScreaming 3 aces

    TWO-SUITED BLACKWOOD

  • If a double fit has been discovered or one hand has shown a massive two-suiter,
  • there are six Key Cards: the aces and the two key kings. Both queens may or may not
  • both be significant, depending on circumstances.

  • +130 or all six
    +241
    +32 or 5
    +42 or 5 with all important queen(s)

    TWO-SUITED BLACKWOOD QUEEN-ASKING BID (next suit up) over +1/+2:

    +1none
    +2one queen
    +3both queens

  • However the queen-ask bid over +3 works like a normal queen-ask,
  • since responder has already denied having both of them.
  • QUANTITATIVE 4NT

  • After opener has shown a balanced hand, bids of 4NT or 5NT are usually quantitative. The quantitative 4NT only applies when opener has shown a balanced hand with a specific points range. Murky auctions like 1D 1S 3D 3H 3NT 4NT aren't quantitative, but instead Stone Age Blackwood (no suit agreed in this instance) from a hand that needed more information as to the best trump fit.
  • The exception (i.e. 4NT isn't quantitative even after a limit bid showing a balanced hand from opener) is when there's no bidding space for both Blackwood and a quantitative 4NT,
  • e.g. 2NT-3H-3S-4NT, or 2C-2NT-3H-3S-4NT.
  • Partner passes or bids on towards slam depending whether
  • or not they're maximum or minimum within their defined point range
  • 4NT is quantitative if bypassing Minorwood and no other specific agreement
  • For example, the following auctions are quantitative and can be passed:
  • 1NT-2C-2H-4NT
  • 1NT-2H-2S-4NT
  • 1D-1H-1NT-4NT
  • Sometimes you'd like the bid to mean Blackwood, but make a forcing bid and then bid 4NT.
  • Sometimes you won't have an honest rebid, but that's unlikely to be damaging because you're in control.
  • These forcing bids could be:

  • 1NT 2C 2H 3D [f]forcing relay, opener bids distribution.
    1NT 2H 2S...scrape up a new suit bid.
    1D 1H 1NT...scrape up a new suit bid.

  • The following continuations apply after a quantitative 4NT:

  • pass [s]minimum and/or flat
    6NT [s]to play
    6suit [s]to play, e.g. with a six-card suit that opener suppressed to open 1NT or 2NT.
    5suit [f]natural, showing a 4-card suit with not fewer than 3 points in it. If partner has four-card support, they'll raise to slam. If not, they'll bid their own suits up the line in search of a fit, up to 5NT. (Opener may or may not be intending to bid 6NT anyway.)

    MINORWOOD

  • In a game-forcing auction, when (a) a minor-suit has already been agreed or (b) the suit-agreement bid is a jump, a bid of four of this agreed minor suit is asking about key cards, just like RKC Blackwood.
  • Continuations after partner's response:

  • cheapest bid that's not trumpsAsking about the trump queen if it hasn't already been shown. There is no king-asking equivalent of the Blackwood 5NT and the partnership will have to cue-bid instead.

  • If a 4m bid agrees that minor and so isn't Minorwood (which would have needed suit agreement before that bid), then a continuation of the cheapest next bid takes that meaning instead.
  • 4m isn't Minorwood in any of the following situations:
  • (a) the minor hadn't ALREADY been agreed, unless the 4m bid is a jump.
  • (b) it's not a game-forcing situation, e.g. the partnership's pre-empting or being pushed up in a competitive auction, or after 1m 3m (Inverted) game try. Raising partner's minor-suit pre-empt to 4m is also merely competitive.
  • (c) the 4m bidder opened the bidding with a strong balanced opening call (e.g. 1NT, 2D, 2NT) and Blackwood hasn't yet been unlocked, e.g. with a splinter, by implication asking partner to consider slam if they don't have wasted values in the suit. It's a fundamental principle of bidding that after such an immediately informative opening, it's normally responder who asks all the questions because they have much more information about the partnership's combined holding.
  • EXCLUSION BLACKWOOD

  • Void-showing, asks for key cards excluding the void suit.
  • Exclusion Blackwood is a jump shift when cue-bidding (e.g. 1S-3S-4C-5H, 1S-3S-5C)
  • or a jump higher than a splinter.
  • An unnecessary jump is...
  • A splinter if it's below 4 of the agreed trump suit.
  • (If it were possible to splinter at two levels, then the higher one would be void-showing... but I don't think it is.)
  • It's Exclusion Blackwood if it's between 4 and 5 of the agreed trump suit.
  • It's a complete two-suiter if it's at the 5-level and above the agreed trump suit.
  • GRAND SLAM FORCE

  • A bid of 5NT if not in a sequence that gives it a specific meaning, e.g. Blackwood for kings. However the Grand Slam Force obviously doesn't apply in Blackwood-like auctions, since the partnership has already asked and answered questions about the trump honours.
  • Partner bids grand with two of the top three trump honours.
  • Partner cue-bids a king below 6 with one of the top three honours
  • Partner signs off in 6 with no trump honours, or no cue-biddable king
  • TENTATIVE BLACKWOOD

  • After a strong two opening, sometimes you're still exploring suits at the four level.
  • Tentative Blackwood must have a negative, by default the cheapest response, which denies trump support.
  • All other responses confirm trump support and show Key Cards (skipping over the agreed negative).
  • CUE BIDDING

  • No bid below the four level is a cue bid, except for suit bids after Fourth Suit Forcing.
  • Going to the four-level below the agreed trump suit is the slam-going equivalent of a trial bid (not a cue-bid) if 3NT would have been the Serious 3NT and yet it hasn't been bid. It's not control-asking, but instead showing slam interest and probably asking partner to consider in particular their holding in the given suit. Sometimes however partner will be cramped for room, e.g. our suit is hearts and the opponents have bid diamonds, so clubs is the only available suit if he wanted to make a slam invitation like this.
  • This also applies for strong opening bids, e.g. 2C.
  • We start with first or second-round controls, not just first-round. Ergo 3NT (Serious) 4C shows ace/king or void/singleton, not just ace or void. This is because there are other ways of looking for aces and voids, but we have no other way of looking for first/second round controls.
  • SERIOUS 3NT

  • If a major-suit fit has been agreed, any later bid of 3NT is forcing and shows slam interest.
  • COMPLETE TWO-SUITER

  • Every so often, it will be possible to make a jump shift at the 5-level that's below slam, but above Exclusion Blackwood. Such bids show a complete two-suiter, i.e. with two voids, and ask about significant Key Cards. Any suits which aren't known from partner's bidding until that point will be assumed to be the highest of the available options. After that partner can ask for queens by bidding the cheapest non-sign-off bid, with the same pattern of responses.

  • cheapest bid0 Key Cards
    +11 Key Card
    +22 Key Cards
    +33 Key Cards
    +44 Key Cards

    FOURTH SUIT FORCING

  • Bidding the fourth suit is always forcing in an uncontested auction,
  • but it's only the convention known as Fourth Suit Forcing when bid by responder.
  • COMPETITIVE AUCTIONS

  • This table isn't describing the meaning of a response to partner's bidding, but instead the meaning of an overcall of the given bid from the opposition!

  • suit opening, if promising at least one card in the suitSuit bids promise a good suit, not a point count. However a two-level opening needs to have significantly more playing strength, especially if vulnerable (when it should indicate an opening hand with a robust suit that's proof against bad luck).
    The opponents have bid two suitsNot that different from the situation when they've only bid one, except that cue bids are natural and to play since all 5-5 hands can be assumed to be biddable with an Unusual 2NT.
    Double from the oppositionPass promises partial support for partner's suit, while redouble denies even partial support but guarantees that the partnership has lots of points. Otherwise bids mean what they would have meant anyway.

    TAKE-OUT DOUBLE: RESPONSES

  • A positive can be assumed to be roughly 9-11 points, i.e. intermediate, since you can assume that partner will be bidding again anyway if holding 17+ and so a minimum response on an ordinary 8 points is safe... you still won't stop short should the partnership hold the requisite combined 25 points.

  • Pass when the opponents haven't bidFor penalties, with excellent trumps and either (a) strength, expecting a juicy penalty, or (b) a weaker hand that can't be sure of beating the opponents' doubled contract, but thinks this is the least bad option. The doubler is entitled to assume hand (a). Subsequent doubles by the partnership are all for penalties.
    Pass after redoubleFor penalties, NOT a "pass-the-buck" forcing bid. The opponents' redouble doesn't change the meaning of our takeout doubles.
    Pass after other interventionEither uninterested in competing the part-score or a penalty pass that's hoping partner can find another takeout double.
    Minimum suit bid (silent opponents)0-8 points, ostensibly natural but sometimes a short suit on a weak hand that couldn't bid no-trumps (either too weak or no stop). With more than 8 points a stronger response is mandatory, because doubler's only guaranteed to find another bid if holding 17+ points.
    Minimum suit bid (opposition intervened)Natural, weak positive (sometimes very weak). Shows a hand willing to compete the part-score at the given level and vulnerability, which often isn't saying much.
    Jump in suitA hand that's not strong enough to bid game immediately by itself, but might miss game after a minimum response. Shows either 9-11 (or a bad 12) or equivalent playing strength, including shape. Negative inferences about suit length will sometimes be available from a failure to cue-bid to show equal length in two suits.
    Double jump to threePre-emptive, at least a five-card suit.
    Jump to four of a minorMinorwood.
    Jump to 4NTStone-Age Blackwood, with no agreed suit.
    Raise the opponents' most recently bid suit"Pick a suit, please, partner." Shows enough high-card strength to force the bidding a level higher (i.e. 9+). Asks partner to choose between two equivalent suits, normally either the two minors or the two majors, so by implication suggests exactly four cards in each. Forcing, but not game-forcing. Is expected to deny four of the obvious unbid suit if there is one, so for instance a cue-bid of a double of 1H asks partner to choose a minor. (Conceivably might also be the first move on a tricky game or slam-going hand.)
    A suit that the opponents have mentioned, but not their last-bid denominationNatural, to play.
    1NTNatural, constructive, about 7.5-10 points. It's essentially the same bid as a 1NT response to partner's opening bid when the opponents have overcalled. Shows a good holding in the opponents' suit(s).
    2NTNatural, about 10-12 points. As above.
    Jump to five of a majorInviting six.
    Jump to 5NTInviting six.
    Any game or slamNatural, to play.

    REBID OF TAKE-OUT DOUBLER AFTER A MINIMUM RESPONSE

    PassNORMAL AND EXPECTED, even if this means not supporting partner in a competitive auction. Partner's expecting you to have support anyway. A takeout double is a "say it once and shut up" bid that surrenders all responsibility for further competitive decisions to partner. However you should of course respond to direct questions, e.g. Minorwood, Blackwood, a "choose a suit" cue bid.
    No-trumpsNatural and too strong for an immediate no-trump overcall, i.e. 18-20 (ish).
    No-trumps from a passed handA 5-5 hand with the wrong suits for either Michaels or the Unusual No-Trump.
    New suit17+ points, no longer promising takeout shape.
    New suit from a passed handFlawed takeout double, showing a 5-card suit and a second suit that partner can usually infer from the auction. Doubled to increase the chances of finding a fit with partner, able to correct to long suit if necessary because you've already denied a 17-count by passing earlier.
    Raise, whether or not it's in competition17+ points.
    Jump raise to three20+ points or equivalent.
    Jump in no-trumpsNatural, 21+.
    Jump shift17+ points with a massive 6-card or longer suit.
    Cue-bid in opponents' most recently bid suitGame-forcing, could be any shape. If at the three level, partner will assume it's a probe for 3NT (unless the auction later makes this interpretation impossible).
    Raise to four of a minorMinorwood.
    Raise to gameTo play.
    Jump to 4NTRKC Blackwood

    REBID OF TAKE-OUT DOUBLER AFTER 9+ JUMP RESPONSE

    PassTo play.
    No-trumpsNatural and too strong for an immediate no-trump overcall, i.e. 18-20 (ish).
    No-trumps from a passed handA 5-5 hand with the wrong suits for either Michaels or the Unusual No-Trump.
    New suit17+ points and game-forcing, no longer promising takeout shape.
    New suit from a passed handFlawed takeout double, showing a 5-card suit and a second suit that partner can usually infer from the auction. Doubled to increase the chances of finding a fit with partner, able to correct to long suit if necessary because you've already denied a 17-count by passing earlier.
    Raise, whether or not it's in competitionGame-invitational.
    Jump in no-trumpsNatural, 21+.
    Jump shiftSplinter.
    Raise to four of a minorMinorwood.
    Raise to gameTo play.
    Jump to 4NTRKC Blackwood

    REBID OF TAKE-OUT DOUBLER AFTER 9+ CUE-BID RESPONSE

    Either implied suitTo play. Also true if it's a free bid.
    Either implied suit (jump)Game-invitational, or Minorwood if it's four of a minor.
    Either implied suit (game)To play.
    Other suit17+ points and game-forcing, no longer promising takeout shape.
    No-trumpsNatural and too strong for an immediate no-trump overcall, i.e. 18-20 (ish).
    No-trumps from a passed handA 5-5 hand with the wrong suits for either Michaels or the Unusual No-Trump.
    New suit from a passed handFlawed takeout double, showing a 5-card suit and a second suit that partner can usually infer from the auction. Doubled to increase the chances of finding a fit with partner, able to correct to long suit if necessary because you've already denied a 17-count by passing earlier.
    Jump in no-trumpsNatural, 21+.
    Jump to 4NTTwo-Suited Blackwood.

    REBID OF TAKE-OUT DOUBLER AFTER POSITIVE NO-TRUMP RESPONSE

    PassTo play.
    New suit17+ points and game-forcing, no longer promising takeout shape.
    New suit from a passed handFlawed takeout double, showing a 5-card suit and a second suit that partner can usually infer from the auction. Doubled to increase the chances of finding a fit with partner, able to correct to long suit if necessary because you've already denied a 17-count by passing earlier.
    Raise, whether or not it's in competitionGame-invitational.
    4NT or 5NTQuantitative
    Jump shiftMassive completely solid suit, game-forcing
    Raise to four of a minorMinorwood.
    Raise to gameTo play.

    REBID OF TAKE-OUT DOUBLER AFTER PRE-EMPTIVE RESPONSE

    PassNORMAL AND EXPECTED, even if this means not supporting partner in a competitive auction. Partner's expecting you to have support anyway. A takeout double is a "say it once and shut up" bid that surrenders all responsibility for further competitive decisions to partner. However you should of course respond to direct questions, e.g. Minorwood, Blackwood, a "choose a suit" cue bid.
    No-trumpsNatural and too strong for an immediate no-trump overcall, i.e. 18-20 (ish).
    No-trumps from a passed handA 5-5 hand with the wrong suits for either Michaels or the Unusual No-Trump.
    New suit17+ points, no longer promising takeout shape.
    New suit from a passed handFlawed takeout double, showing a 5-card suit and a second suit that partner can usually infer from the auction. Doubled to increase the chances of finding a fit with partner, able to correct to long suit if necessary because you've already denied a 17-count by passing earlier.
    Jump shift17+ points with a massive 6-card or longer suit.
    Cue-bid in opponents' most recently bid suitGame-forcing, could be any shape. If at the three level, partner will assume it's a probe for 3NT (unless the auction later makes this interpretation impossible).
    Raise to four of a minorMinorwood.
    Raise to gameTo play.
    Jump to 4NTRKC Blackwood

    REDOUBLE

  • This table shows the meaning of a redouble after various sequences. NOTE: SOS redoubles are rare and only apply under very specific circumstances; if in doubt, it's not SOS. A redouble of a penalty double of no-trumps is always for blood.

  • Partner opened the bidding and the opponents doubledFor blood and to play, showing a desire to double the opponents for penalties should they try to run. This is true whatever partner opened, be it a suit, a pre-empt, a no-trump, a game-forcing bid or anything else. If partner opened one of a suit, the redouble shows 10+ points and is quite likely to be a misfit.
    Any no-trump bid from partner, be it opening, overcall or responseFor blood, as above.
    Lead-directing double of most conventional bids, e.g. Stayman or a 2D auctionfor blood, as above, if early enough in the auction that the redoubler might really have that suit. If that's clearly impossible, then it's treated as as the equivalent of a doubled cue bid (see below).
    Double of cue bidfurther cue bid in that suit, so by implication pass would deny a control
    Double of Blackwood or other cue-card asking bidROPI, i.e. 0 or 3 key cards
    Any non-silly game contract, i.e. not a cue bid or the likenatural, to play
    Your own 1-3 suit overcall + penalty dble, partner silentSOS, for rescue, shows a second suit somewhere
    1NT (dble) your own suit bid that got doubled, partner silentSOS, might have bid a short suit
    Partner passes your opening 1 suit and the opponents doublemonster hand, 20+ points or so
    Partner passes your opening 1NT and the opponents doublemaximum, fancies his chances
    Opener redoubles after the opponents doubled partner's suit responseDenying even partial support for partner's suit, following the usual principle of redouble being the more penalty-oriented hand. Thus shows either a singleton or doubleton, but mustn't have a void because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    Redouble after the opponents have doubled partner's suit overcalla useful hand with partial support for partner's suit, e.g. Hx. It's a bit like a support double, which we don't generally play.
    Your side made a takeout double that was dutifully taken out and now the opponents are doubling you for penaltiesA much better hand than would have been assumed from the auction, letting partner know that the opponents are taking the piss. If the other side runs, you might even start doubling them.

    DEFENCE TO A TRANSFER TO THE MAJORS

    passMight be a waiting bid from a strong hand.
    DoubleLead-directing. Would normally show both majors, but one of them's just been taken out of the equation.
    responder's real suittake-out
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    DEFENCE TO TRANSFER TO THE MINORS

    passMight be a waiting bid from a strong hand.
    Doublethe majors
    responder's real suittake-out
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)The bid's default meaning, e.g. strong and natural, or 4NT Blackwood. Might have been expected to show the minors, but this conventional meaning has just become redundant.
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minor

    OVERCALLS WHEN THE OPPONENTS HAVE BID ONE SUIT AT LEAST SEMI-NATURALLY, NOT COUNTING NO-TRUMPS

  • Two-suited bids, e.g. Michaels, Unusual 2NT, are usually described as "weak or strong".
  • They suggest a hand that would be happy to see partner bid on over the opponents' major-suit game.

  • Any bid in the pass-out seatA king weaker than when bid directly.
    DoubleOne of two hand types. DEFAULT ASSUMPTION: take-out, opening strength, support for unbid suits. This is a "say it once and shut up" bid that thereafter leaves all competitive decisions to partner and the doubler is not expected to bid again unless partner finds a bid that asks them to do so. To do so shows extreme strength (17+) and previous assumptions about shape no longer apply. NOTE: this bid promises proper opening values (i.e. you'd been going to open the bidding if the opponents had passed) AND support for the unbid suits. Opening a 4441 10-count "because the shape is perfect" is a violation of all that is good and will cause cancer in kittens.
    Suit overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level
    Jump suit overcallWeak Two, 6-10 and a 6-card suit
    Suit jump in the pass-out seat10-14 actual points (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies a four-card major side-suit, like a fourth-seat 2H opening.
    Suit jump in spades in the pass-out seat8-12 (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies four hearts, like a fourth-seat 2S opening.
    Greater jump suit overcallPre-emptive
    1NT from a passed hand (protective)Stretching with a good eleven-count and the usual transferred-king principle.
    1NT from a passed hand (non-protective)5-5 shape and a distribution that can't be shown with either Unusual 2NT or Michaels, e.g. the black suits after a diamond opening. If there's no such unshowable distribution (i.e. after a major opening), it's the LOWER of the two Michaels options, i.e. (1S) passed-hand-1NT would show clubs+hearts.
    1NT15-17, natural, with a useful holding in any opposition suits. Responses are the same as after a 1NT opening bid.
    2C cue bidNatural club overcall. This remains true even if the opponents are playing a natural system and their 1C actually shows clubs. Our 2C overcall retains the same meaning irrespective of that.
    Cue bid of majorMichaels, 5-5 shape, the other major and a minor
    2D over one of a minorMichaels, 5-5 in the majors
    2NT5-5 in the lowest two unbid suits, Unusual 2NT
    Jump to 3-level cue bidasking partner to bid 3NT if they have a stopper in this suit
    Jump to 3NTTo play, long running minor.
    4NTAcol 4NT, asking for specific aces
    5NTasking for specific kings

    OVERCALLS WHEN THE OPPONENTS HAVE BID TWO DIFFERENT SUITS NATURALLY (ISH)

    Any bid in the pass-out seatA king weaker than when bid directly.
    DoubleOne of two hand types. DEFAULT ASSUMPTION: take-out, opening strength, support for unbid suits. This is a "say it once and shut up" bid that thereafter leaves all competitive decisions to partner and the doubler is not expected to bid again unless partner finds a bid that asks them to do so. To do so shows extreme strength (17+) and previous assumptions about shape no longer apply. NOTE: this bid promises proper opening values (i.e. you'd been going to open the bidding if the opponents had passed) AND support for the unbid suits. Opening a 4441 10-count "because the shape is perfect" is a violation of all that is good and will cause cancer in kittens.
    Cue bidnatural overcall, to play
    Suit overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level
    Jump suit overcallWeak Two, 6-10 and a 6-card suit
    Greater jump suit overcallPre-emptive
    1NT from a passed hand (protective)Stretching with a good eleven-count and the usual transferred-king principle.
    1NT from a passed hand (non-protective)5-5 shape and a distribution that can't be shown with either Unusual 2NT or Michaels, e.g. the black suits after a diamond opening. If there's no such unshowable distribution (i.e. after a major opening), it's the LOWER of the two Michaels options, i.e. (1S) passed-hand-1NT would show clubs+hearts.
    1NT15-17, natural, with a useful holding in any opposition suits. Responses are the same as after a 1NT opening bid.
    2NT5-5 in the two unbid suits
    Jump to 3-level cue bidasking partner to bid 3NT if they have a stopper in this suit
    Jump to 3NTTo play, long running minor.
    4NTAcol 4NT, asking for specific aces
    5NTasking for specific kings

    RESPONSE TO 2NT OVERCALL OF WEAK TWO

    Passto play
    DoubleTake-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double and then keep bidding even when partner pulls it is game-forcing and natural (showing only a four-card suit) up to 3NT or else above that a slam try, agreeing partner's suit. If you want to play in a part-score, all you can do is pass and hope partner finds a reopening double, then make your non-forcing bid.
    RedoubleWants to double the opponents for penalties.
    Transfer into opponents' suitThe equivalent of a splinter opposite a 1NT opening. Game-forcing splinter, promising a four-card major and at least a mild slam invitation. Unlocks Blackwood. (This doesn't apply at the one level because one might sometimes genuinely want to play in a suit bid by the opponents, but this seems unlikely after a Weak Two.)
    3CStayman (ordinary four-card)
    3Dtransfer to hearts
    3Htransfer to spades
    3Stransfer to clubs
    New suit after overcallNatural, at least a five-card suit, game-forcing. Makes no promise as to suit quality.
    Jump shift after overcallIf four of a minor or 4NT, it's ace-asking. Otherwise it's to play and possibly pre-emptive.
    3NTto play
    Cue-bid after overcallTake-out, game-forcing, likely to have slam interest.
    4C, 4D, 4H, 4STransfer to next suit. Super-accepts are banned at the four level.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5 of a minorto play
    5 of a major"pick a slam", 5440 shape with a void in the bid suit.
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamTo play, showing a no-loser trump suit at the six level. Not a transfer.

    2NT OVERCALLER'S RESPONSE AFTER PARTNER'S TRANSFERRED INTO THE OPPONENTS' WEAK TWO

    Completing transfer into Weak Two suitAsks for responder's best minor, which will be Minorwood unless the 2NT overcaller is planning to go directly to game or slam in the agreed suit.
    3 of a majorfixes trumps, forcing.
    4 of a minorfixes trumps, Minorwood.
    Any gameto play
    Jump to four in Weak Two suitagreeing the other major and asking partner to bid RKC Blackwood, shows strong slam interest.
    4NTRKC Blackwood in responder's promised major.

    RESPONDING TO PARTNER'S 3NT OVERCALL OF THE OPPONENTS' PRE-EMPT

    passto play
    4 of a minorMinorwood, which is the only ace-asking response to partner's 3NT. In general the partnership is quite likely to be unable to ask for key cards in this kind of auction. However bidding Minorwood on a suit you don't have is dangerous because you'll then have only yourself to blame if you end up in a silly contract because partner thought your attempted sign-off in a major or no-trumps was a grand slam try in your apparently promised minor.
    any game or slamto play
    4NTquantitative, inviting six. It's not Blackwood!
    5NTquantitative, inviting seven
    five of a majorinviting partner to raise to slam if suitable

    RESPONDING TO PARTNER'S NATURAL SUIT OVERCALL OF THE OPPONENTS' PRE-EMPT

    new suit below gamenatural, game-forcing
    new suit at gamenatural, non-forcing
    4NTnatural, RKC Blackwood
    cue-bidslam investigation and/or a probe for 3NT (if at the three level)

    RESPONDING TO PARTNER'S LEAPING MICHAELS

    a suit partner might havenatural
    a suit partner definitely doesn't havenatural
    4NTnatural, to play
    cue-bidslam investigation

    CONTINUATIONS AFTER PARTNER'S PENALTY DOUBLE OF 1NT

  • NOTE: "in the bank" takeout doubles of an opposing suit bid are unusually not killed even we find ourselves doubling subsequent no-trump bids by the opposition. This is consistent with the fact that we're allowing takeout doubles in the first place after we've doubled the initial 1NT for penalties. This is a special situation. At this level it's possible both to take massive penalties and to double the opponents into game, so it's more important even than usual to know exactly what we're doing.

  • Pass if opponents silentTo play. This is true whatever the meaning of the pass, e.g. forcing.
    Pass if opponents have started wrigglingMight be passing for penalties, hoping partner can find a reopening double. Any subsequent double later in the auction by the player who passed here will be for penalties.
    Redouble from the opponentssee separate table below.
    Pass after a redouble for blood to show strengthTo play, with nothing to say.
    Any other bid after a redouble for blood to show strengthWeak and to play, possibly pre-emptive.
    Double of a natural or semi-natural (e.g. this and another) suit bid if the opponents have started wrigglingTake-out. If on the following round the takeout doubler then pulls his partner's requested takeout bid or bids a new suit over the opposition's continued intervention, the new bid is natural and game-forcing.
    Double of a no-trump bidPenalties, but unusually this doesn't kill the "in the bank" takeout double of a suit that you'll still have available if the opponents suddenly pop up with one.
    Double of an artificial suit bid by the oppositionFREEBIE. Natural "freebie" double, showing that you have that suit and at least a few values, without affecting the "in the bank" takeout double that you'll still have available when the opponents at last make a natural suit bid. Unusually, the "in the bank" take-out double of an opposing suit bid will remain available even if we've doubled subsequent no-trump bids.
    New suit, whether or not the opposition have started wrigglingWeak, to play.
    Jump in suitNatural and invitational with a long suit, but not game-forcing.
    2NTGame-forcing.
    3NTTo play.

    EXAMPLE AUCTIONS AFTER PARTNER'S PENALTY DOUBLE OF 1NT, TO SHOW PENALTY VS. TAKEOUT DOUBLES

    1NT dble 2H (natural) 2Sweak, to play
    1NT dble 2H (natural) dbletakeout
    1NT dble 2C (natural) dble pass 2H pass 2Sthe double was for takeout, after which the 2S bid is natural and game-forcing
    1NT dble 2H (transfer to spades) dblefreebie double, showing a heart suit and not affecting the partnership's "in the bank" takeout double
    1NT dble 2?? (other puppet bid to a known different suit, e.g. spades) dbleanother freebie double, as above
    1NT dble 2H (natural) dble 2S dble2H-dble is takeout, 2S-dble is penalties because we've now used up our "in the bank" double
    1NT dble 2H (natural) pass pass dbletakeout, since partner might have been passing for penalties
    1NT dble 2H (transfer) pass 2S (as requested) dbleagain takeout, as before
    1NT dble 2H (natural) pass 2S dblethis time it's penalties, because opener is bidding spades under their own steam and it's the second denomination that's been bid by that player. The tentative assumption is that partner's pass was for penalties, since a bid would have been weak and to play.
    1NT dble 3S (natural) dbletakeout
    1NT dble 2?? (not showing the suit being bid but instead asking a question of partner, e.g. Stayman) dblefreebie double, not affecting the partnership's "in the bag" takeout double
    1NT dble 2C (Stayman) dble 2NT dble 3H (natural) dblea very silly auction, but I've included it to demonstrate how a few clear principles can simplify a complicated situation. If the first double is for penalties, then the second double is freebie, the third double is penalties and the fourth double is that "in the bank" takeout double that still hadn't been used yet.

    1NT + PENALTY DOUBLE + REDOUBLE + ?

  • This table applies after any redouble from the opponents, regardless of its meaning. However that said, a popular convention is for redouble under these circumstances to be a puppet to 2C, showing any single-suited hand. The redoubler is then expected either to pass (if holding clubs) or bid their suit. This is hard to defend against because for obvious reasons there's no "freebie double" available and if holding a good hand that's looking to take a penalty, the next hand after the redouble has no choice but to pass.

  • passQuite possibly a forced pass, since double obviously isn't a legal bid after this sequence! Denies a very weak hand with a long suit that can't bear a penalty double of the opposition, because such a hand can bid its suit immediately with the meaning of "weak and to play". If the passer later turns out to be very weak, they're also flat.
    suit at 2-levelweak, to play
    2NTgame-forcing, very likely to have shape because a flat hand with values will be seeking to penalise the opponents instead.
    suit at 3-levellong suit, invitational. Doubler is allowed to pass, but also to bid game if suitable.
    4 of a minorMinorwood
    any gameto play

    1NT + PENALTY DOUBLE + PUPPET REDOUBLE + PASS + PUPPET 2C + ?

  • The 2C bid doesn't promise clubs, but is simply pass-or-correct.

  • passMight be holding a club suit and hoping can partner find a reopening double, although this isn't mandatory.
    doubleTHIS IS NOT FREEBIE. Instead it's takeout, on the presumption that the opponents' suit is clubs. Maybe it is and maybe it isn't, but that has to be the meaning of a double in this position, against the one-in-four eventuality of responder being about to pass and put down lots of clubs. The rationale to help us remember this is that even though the bid was a forced response, sometimes it's going to be natural for the partnership and so can't be treated as "freebie".
    suit at 2-levelnatural, strong
    2NTunknown two-suiter
    3Cnatural, strong, shows clubs
    jump shiftextremely strong six-card suit or longer, requires very little in addition from partner to make game
    4 of a minorMinorwood
    any gameto play

    1NT + PENALTY DOUBLE + PUPPET REDOUBLE + PASS + PUPPET 2C + PASS + 2?? + ?

  • The redoubler has now revealed their suit.

  • doubleTakeout of the now-revealed suit, with the system now being identical to the simpler sequence we'd have followed if the opponents' system hadn't included the wrinkle of a redouble and a 2C puppet response. It's the "in the bank" takeout double that we hadn't used up yet, in other words.

    RESPONSES TO OVERCALL, EITHER SIMPLE OR JUMP

  • A bid in the pass-out seat is a king weaker than when bid directly, so responder has to be a king stronger.

  • No-trumpsto play
    Any raiseto play and possibly pre-emptive, unless Minorwood
    Cue bid of the opposition's last-bid denominationUnassuming Cue Bid, promising a solid raise, but only if opponent's bid can be expected normally to contain 3+ cards and/or has been supported by their partner. This overrides the "probe for 3NT" meaning, which doesn't apply as a direct response to partner's overcall.
    Cue bid of any other denominationnatural, showing a good suit there despite the fact that the opposition had previously bid it.
    Jump cue bidsplinter, again not a "probe for 3NT".
    New suitforcing if the next hand passed
    Jump shiftfit-jump, forcing. Shows trump support with a side-suit, at least 5-4, ostensibly not strong enough for game but might also be a stronger hand that's interested in a higher contract and is planning to keep bidding.
    1NTNatural and invitational, expected to be a useful intermediate hand or equivalent. Might also be stronger and downgrading for shortage in partner's suit.
    2NTNatural and invitational, showing values appropriate for what's expected from partner's bid at the position and vulnerability.
    Jump to 2NTNatural and invitational, showing a solid opening hand with further valuable features, e.g. either a useful holding in partner's suit or additional high-card strength.
    2NT over a weak jump overcallOgust
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    RESPONSES TO A 5-5 TWO-SUITED OVERCALL, e.g. UNUSUAL 2NT, MICHAELS

    passto play
    No-trumpschunky opening values, natural and (if below game) game-invitational. If 3NT, to play. However see below...
    No-trumps from a passed hand, if partner's suits aren't both knownpass-or-correct.
    Raising partner's conventional cue-bid of the opposition's suitPass-or-correct if partner's suits aren't known and no-trumps was unavailable or inconvenient as a pass-or-correct bid. Otherwise a strong forcing bid and, at the three level, a probe for 3NT. If repeated or can't have its normal meaning because partner has declined opportunities on previous rounds of bidding to take such an option, becomes natural and to play.
    any other non-jump bidto play
    a suit partner definitely has, at any levelto play
    a suit partner might have, at any level, if partner's suits aren't both knownPass-or-correct if it's the lower of the two possible options and responder hasn't bypassed any opportunity to make a pass-or-correct bid. (Once a pass-or-correct bid has been made, further bids are also pass-or-correct and there's no ambiguity. An artificial pass-or-correct bid only needs to be made once in any auction.) Otherwise natural and to play.
    jump in a suit partner doesn't havesplinter, promising a trump fit in one of partner's suits, no way yet of knowing which. Slam try.
    4NTTwo-Suited Blackwood, unless overridden by another meaning (e.g. pass-or-correct)

    RESPONSES TO A TWO-SUITED "MINOR + MAJOR" OVERCALL (only one suit known)

    passTo play.
    doublePenalties.
    redoubleA strong hand that would like to have a constructive auction and make natural forcing suit bids.
    raiseNatural, never Minorwood.
    the other suitNatural, non-forcing.
    lower of the two options for partner's unknown suit (if non-jump)Pass-or-correct
    higher of the two options for partner's unknown suit (if non-jump and below game)Pass-or-correct, promising a significantly better holding in the lower-ranking suit because partner would be being forced a level higher.
    jump in any suitNatural, pre-emptive.
    minimum no-trump bidForcing, asking partner to describe their hand further. Often the best first move if holding a strong hand.
    jump to 3NT (if non-passed hand)to play
    jump to 4NTRKC Blackwood, agreeing partner's trump suit
    other jump in no-trumpspre-emptive, asking partner to bid their unknown suit

    "MAJOR OR MINOR" OVERCALLER'S CONTINUATION AFTER A RELAY OR "PASS-OR-CORRECT" BID FROM PARTNER

    passto play
    one of the options for the unknown suit, at any levelnatural, ostensibly to play although obviously any jump will carry implications about strength and shape
    the known suit, i.e. ignoring partner's pass-or-correctstrong 6-4 hand, rebidding a very strong 6-card suit.
    the suit you're supposedly known not to havenatural and hence a complete three-suiter, i.e. with a void somewhere else.
    no-trumpsstrong

    RESPONSES TO A TWO-SUITED OVERCALL SHOWING 5-4 IN THE MAJORS

    passto play
    any major-suit bid, at any levelto play
    no-trumpsasks for partner's five-card major.
    2Dto play
    3 of a minoruseful hand with a good minor suit
    3NTto play
    4 of a minorsplinter, promising an unspecified major. Partner is to assume it's hearts, then responder can correct if necessary.
    4NTTwo-Suited Blackwood.
    5+ of anythingto play.
    double after interventionTake-out, for both partners.
    redouble after doubleShowing strong holdings in both minors. It might even be possible to start doubling the opposition if they start running from suit to suit and everything's breaking badly for them.

    RESPONSES TO A "MAJORS OR MINORS" 1NT-2NT

    3 of a minorpass-or-correct
    3 of a majornatural, forcing
    3NTto play
    jump in a suitpromises the bid suit and another, guaranteeing a fit whether partner has majors or minors.
    4NTRKC Blackwood

    PENALTY VS. TAKEOUT DOUBLES

  • WARNING #1: doubles are complicated. The rules are subtle and any reference to a double elsewhere in the system card should be taken as a GUIDELINE and might, under certain circumstances, be potentially misleading. Full and reliable analysis of the meaning of any particular double can only be found on this page here.
  • WARNING #2: if you're in mid-hand and trying to use this page as a reference, bugger off. The only way to handle doubles is by having the rules clear in your head beforehand and applying simple logic, which isn't going to happen if you're scrabbling for a rule in a few desperate seconds.
  • DEFINITIONS OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF DOUBLE

    PENALTYWants to make this the final contract, doubled. Wants partner to pass.
    LEAD-DIRECTINGTechnically it's another penalty double, but of a contract the opponents were unlikely to play in, e.g. you're doubling Stayman. The message you're sending to partner is "I'm strong in this suit, so please lead it". If partner's particularly suitable, they're also allowed to compete in it during the auction.
    TAKEOUTTelling partner you have length in the unbid suits and asking partner to choose one of them, with the logical corollary that "unbid suit" can only become a meaningful concept if the opponents have bid any suits in the first place! If the opponents have done nothing except double and/or make natural no-trump overcalls, the idea of a takeout double is meaningless. The choice being offered to partner must be 2 or 3, instead of 0, 1 or (risibly) all four. NOTE: the terminology of a "takeout double" doesn't just mean "I've doubled so you have to bid something, partner". It's a promise about distribution and suit length.

    SPECIAL MEANINGS

    A specific convention, e.g. DOPI/ROPI, or the "5-4 in the majors" double of a no-trump opening under certain specific circumstancesspecified meaning
    Double of splinter5-card suit or longer in a hand that wouldn't play too badly if that suit were trumps, offering partner the option of sacrificing against the opponents' contract
    Double of a Gambling 3NT if the doubler is a passed handUseful suits, good shape + playing strength and intermediate or so in terms of high card points, best described as a forward-going noise. Partner is allowed either to pass or compete over the 3NT bid, as they see fit.
    Lead-directing doubles, e.g. Lightner -- see separate table belowrequesting a particular lead

    PENALTY

    Any contract of 4S or higherPENALTIES. There are no takeout doubles above this level, although there are some special cases that have additional meaning on top, e.g. doubles of splinters, or passed-hand doubles of a Gambling 3NT.
    Any no-trump bid from 2NT upwardsPENALTIES
    1NT opening, unless it's a strong no-trump or the doubler is a passed handPENALTIES
    Any 1NT bid if we've previously said something during the auction (not counting "pass")PENALTIES
    We opened a suit at the one-level and partner responded with a bid that wasn't pass or redoublePENALTIES
    We've pre-empted (including Weak Twos and weak jump overcalls)PENALTIES
    We've made a two-suited overcall (e.g. Unusual 2NT, 2D over 1NT)PENALTIES
    All subsequent doubles after a penalty double (or penalty pass of a takeout double, which comes to the same thing). The only exception is after a penalty double of a 1NT opening or overcall - see separate rule below.PENALTIES
    Doubling any suit that's not that particular opponent's first-mentioned denomination and the opposition haven't found a fit in itPENALTIES, with a strong LEAD-DIRECTING implication. This applies even to low-level auctions like 1S (pass) 1NT (pass) 2C (dble).
    Double when there aren't two or three unbid suits to choose betweenPENALTIES, because a takeout interpretation would be meaningless
    Double when there are two unbid suits left, but partner has already asked us to choose between those two specific suits with a takeout double of his ownPENALTIES
    Double when the doubler's already made one takeout double and there's no reason why the situation should be calling for another onePENALTIES
    Double when the doubler's already made two takeout doublesPENALTIES
    It can't be takeout because of previous pass(es)PENALTIES
    We've already used our "in the bank" takeout doublePENALTIES

    TAKEOUT

  • In general terms, once one of us has bid (including an opening double), our partnership can be regarded as having an option in the bank of making one standard takeout double (i.e. only up to 4H, etc.) if the opponents intervene. A double of a no-trump bid can't be for takeout, of course.

  • We: (a) opened a strong two-level opening (2C, 2D, 2NT) and one of us hasn't yet described their hand type, or (b) previously redoubled for blood, i.e. the opponents made a takeout double and we redoubled to show the balance of the points and a strong interest in taking a penaltyWe have a TAKEOUT double in the bank, which is available if the opponents overcall in a suit. We're not expecting to let the opponents play in an undoubled part-score.
    We opened 1NT and partner responded at the two level (i.e. 2C Stayman, 2D/2H transfers, 2S minor-suit transfer or 2NT invitational raise)We have a TAKEOUT double in the bank, which is available if the opponents overcall in a suit.
    Double in response to partner's takeout double at a time when you were given a choice of three suits and at least two are still available nowTAKEOUT, asking partner to choose one of two equals. That's just the standard "in the bank" takeout option.
    Either of us hasn't yet said anything except "pass"TAKEOUT by default, but with quite a lot of exceptions, e.g. penalty doubles of no-trump bids, the doubler has made two takeout doubles already, etc.
    We doubled a no-trump opening or overcall for penaltiesWe have one TAKEOUT double of an opponent's suit bid in the bank, although the situation is complicated by possible systemic wriggles (less likely on bridgebase). Penalty doubles even of subsequent no-trump bids don't take away that suit-takeout option that will still be sitting in the bank for when/if the opponents pop up with a subsequent suit bid.

    LEAD-DIRECTING

  • Doubling a freely bid 3NT requests (in priority order):
  • (a) the lead of a suit bid by the defence
  • (b) then dummy's first-bid suit
  • (c) if there are no such clues at all, i.e. neither dummy nor the doubler bid any suits, then the opening leader is simply being asked to guess what long, strong suit their partner is doubling on.
  • To get a lead of dummy's second-bid suit or one of their cue-bids, you need to double it as soon as it's bid during the auction.
  • Doubling a freely bid slam (aka. Lightner) requests an unusual lead, often for a ruff, and prohibits the lead of a suit bid by the defence. If in doubt, it's likely (although far from certain) to be a suit bid by dummy.
  • OUR CUE BIDS OR SPLINTERS HAVE BEEN DOUBLED

  • On the provisional assumption that we won't try to play in a doubled cue-bid or splinter, we have no use for the usual meaning of "redouble" and "pass" to show good holdings in the doubled suit. The following vague general template ISN'T ALWAYS TRUE, but instead is merely a guideline to which we try to follow whenever possible in order to make the system easier to remember.

  • RedoubleShows something of interest in the redoubled suit.
    BiddingThe normal action, not showing anything in particular.
    PassInvitational, showing extras but not enough to take control.

    SLAM-GOING, SHOWING A CONTROL

    RedoubleShows a control in that same suit.
    BiddingDenies a control.
    PassExclusion Blackwood, with a void.

    SPLINTER

    RedoubleShows a control in that same suit.
    BiddingDenies a control.
    PassInvitational, showing a hand with slam interest but not enough to take over the auction. Happy to let partner take control from now on, be it to stop safely in game or go on towards slam. Note: there's little point in making this last option Exclusion Blackwood because we're unlikely to have a void opposite a splinter!

    "PLEASE CHOOSE A SUIT"

    RedoubleSplinter-like with a singleton in the cue-bid suit but not necessarily extra high-card values.
    BiddingThe normal, expected action.
    PassShows equal holdings in both suits, inviting partner to choose instead.

    UNASSUMING CUE BID

    RedoubleSplinter-like with a singleton in the cue-bid suit but not necessarily extra high-card values.
    BiddingThe normal, expected action.
    PassInvitational, showing extra values.

    PROBE FOR 3NT

    RedoubleDenies the ability to bid 3NT, hence denying a stop in the cue-bid suit, but also shows useful undisclosed values and invites partner to look for game in something else instead.
    BiddingSimply means what it would have meant anyway, be it 3NT or a suit.
    PassA hand that can't bid 3NT and doesn't have any suit they want to bid, leaving the decision on what to do next to partner.

    THE ENCOURAGING TAKE-OUT

  • In the following auction, the 2H bid is encouraging and a mild probe for game,
  • NOT an attempted rescue. Opener is showing a five-card heart suit, something
  • useful in diamonds and probably a decent weak no-trump. Opener can't have
  • anything he wanted to say too desperately or else he'd have said it
  • immediately over 2C instead of passing.
  • -
  • 1H pass 1NT 2C
  • pass pass 2D pass
  • 2H
  • -
  • FORCING PASS

  • There are very few situations where a pass from either partner is forcing.

  • The opponents redoubled our takeout doubleNOT forcing, although it's easy to get this wrong in the heat of the moment. Nevertheless it's imperative that responder basically bids as they'd been going to in any case, indicating to partner that a pass really is a penalty pass, wanting to defend the redoubled contract.
    We've voluntarily bid a game, i.e. we weren't pushed there, and yet the opponents have bid on over it anywayThis is a forcing pass situation. The assumption is that if we're voluntarily choosing to play in game, we shouldn't be letting the other side play their own game undoubled. Thus a pass from the next hand in the partnership to bid in this situation is a mild invitation to partner to bid on, while a double is a strong request to shut up and take the money. IMPORTANT: it's possible very occasionally for a freak hand to come along that breaks this principle! Judgement is always required.

    LEADS + SIGNALS

    LEADS

  • 4th highest from a suit with honours
  • 2nd highest from a suit without honours (unless this will mislead partner into thinking you have an honour)
  • Lowest from a three-card suit with honours
  • Top of a doubleton (or a three card suit if MUD would mislead partner)
  • Top of an honour sequence, eg K from KQJxx, or an internal sequence, eg 10 from K109xx. This might be only two high cards against a trump contract, but should be three against no-trumps.
  • Two consecutive honours is sufficient for an honour lead against a trump contract.
  • Three is preferred against no-trumps (or four if the suit has been bid by an opponent).
  • Leading the ace asks for an attitude signal, while king asks for count.
  • SIGNALS

    1st assumptionencouraging
    2nd assumption if can't be 1stlength
    3rd assumption if can't be 1st or 2ndSuit Preference Signal - high for higher suit, low for lower suit
    High-low in trumpsalso has a third trump and a desire to ruff
    High-level cash-out situationsif possible a high odd card is encouraging with an odd number of cards and a high even card is encouraging with an even number.

    OTHER PRINCIPLES

    Normally when following suit in defence one plays the lowest necessary card, e.g. the jack if holding KQJ.To break this rule shows a specific message, e.g. partner led the jack from J10842 against 3NT, dummy has a void and you hold KQ73. You signal with the 7 and declarer holds up the ace. When partner leads a small card at trick two, you'll play the king, which promises the queen since you wouldn't have ducked an unsupported king at trick one. By corollary, playing the queen at trick two would deny any higher honour.
    "play the card you're known to hold"This applies in situations where declarer might be trying to count the hand. For example, let's say you hold KJ2 underneath dummy's AQxx. If declarer successfully finesses the queen, then you should consider playing the king on the second round (harder for declarer to read) instead of the jack (which makes it easy for him).

    THE "LOVE OF GOD" SIGNAL

  • The "for the love of God, I'm throwing away trick-taking cards here, partner" is a desperation measure, screaming at partner that it's critical to do something. The idea behind the signal is that you're wantonly vandalising the defence's prospects in a given suit, which conveys the message that there's a killing lead somewhere else that partner must choose right now to break the contract, e.g. with AQJ10x sitting over dummy's Kx in a no-trump contract, you might discard an outside ace with dummy holding the king.
  • OTHER PEOPLE'S SYSTEMS

    Precision 1CA combination of natural, two-suited and pre-emptive bids, on the principle that Precision is a powerful weapon once the other side have been allowed to exchange a few bids, but it's very vulnerable to aggressive overcalls. It's much more disruptive (and safer) to overcall the 1C immediately than to back in on the second round, incidentally.
    Polish ClubA vaguely Precision-like system, popular in Poland.
    Mini 1NT10-12 balanced is the most common range, but some are even weaker.
    Multi 2DAssume that the multi bidder has one of the weak options for his bid, since those occur much more frequently than the strong ones. It is also important to bid aggressively on the first round of bidding after the multi has been opened, before opener's partner knows what type of hand he's facing.
    Flannery 2DFlannery is a 2D (or occasionally 2H) opening to show very approximately weak no-trump strength, i.e. (10)11-14, 5+ hearts and exactly four spades. This is neither a weak nor a particularly strong hand, so our overcalls could either be aggressive or a decent opening hand... we'll probably discover in time what works best.

    PRECISION CLUB

  • The Precision Club offers two great advantages and one huge tactical disadvantage. The advantages are (a) that a 1C opening allows extremely accurate auctions if the opposition don't intervene, and (b) any non-1C opening tells responder immediately whether the partnership belongs in part-score, game or slam territory, again allowing much more precision in the auction.
  • The system's tactical weakness is that 1C and 1D both give the opposition every opportunity to carve up the auction and leave the Precision players in the dark. When playing against Precision players, it's crucial to try to do this at every opportunity. The earlier the better. The more information the Precision players have been able to exchange, the better they'll be able to judge their decision of whether or not to double you. Thus for example you're itching to overcall 1C, but should be cautious about 1C (16+) 1NT (8-10 balanced).
  • http://www.bridgehands.com/Conventions/Precision_Big_Club.htm

  • 1C16+ HCP or occasionally less (e.g. a 5-5 15-count, or a 6-5 14-count)
    1D11-15 HCP with 2+ Diamonds. Typically, this is the dustbin bid for all hands that cannot be described any other way. For pairs that play 2D as other than standard precision, two clubs as a six-card suit and five card majors, this could guarantee as few as zero diamonds.
    1H/S11-15 HCP with 5+ suit
    1NTVarious ranges are in use, e.g. 10-12, 11-14, 13-15. Probably normal continuations, except possibly after a Mini No-Trump.
    2C11-15 HCP with clubs, most commonly allowed to be a six-card suit or five cards with a four-card major
    2D11-15 HCP, three suited with diamond shortage
    2H/SWeak Two, i.e. six-card suit, 5-10 points
    2NT22-23 HCP, balanced (standard); optionally Unusual Notrump - weak with long minors
    3C+Same as other systems

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (any 16+)

  • If there's interference over 1C (Mathe, two-suited systems: CRASH, DONT, SET-SCRew, etc), the general approach is that pass is 0-4, 1D is 5-7. 1M is 8+, double is 5+ T/O, NT is 8-13 stoppers, Unusual versus Unusual, redouble is GF

  • 1D0-7 HCP. Note: some partnerships will also bid 1D if holding the "Impossible negative" of a 4441 8-count.
    new suit8+ distribution points, 5-card suit
    1NT8-13 HCP, balanced (5 in minor okay but not major)
    2 of a major4-6 HCP disciplined preemptive, no worse than KJ109xx. If opener queries with 2NT, responder shows shortage if possible.
    2NT14+ HCP, balanced and 4+ controls
    3CBlack shortage, 1444 or 4441, < 4 controls (mostly < 12 HCP).
    3DRed shortage, 4144 or 4144, < 4 controls (mostly < 12 HCP).
    3HSpade shortage, 1444, 12+ HCP and 4+ controls.
    3SClub shortage, 4441, 12+ HCP and 4+ controls.
    3 of a suitALTERNATIVE MEANING: 4-7, 7-card suit
    3NTSolid running 7 or 8 card suit (opener's right to play in NT)
    4CDiamond shortage, 4414, 4+ controls and 12+ HCP
    4DHeart shortage, 4144, 4+ controls and 12+ HCP

    FINN AND DAVID'S DEFENCE TO A PRECISION 1C (16+)

  • The normal action is to intervene as early as possible. To pass at one's first opportunity and then back in later with a double shows strength, unless it's protective and the opponents had been about to pass out the hand in a low-level part-score. This is the standard way to handle a balanced hand with high-card strength but nothing obvious to do on the first round, i.e. nothing stupid.

  • Doublethe majors
    1D overcalldiamonds and a major
    1H/1S overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level.
    1NT overcallthe minors
    2C overcallclubs and a major
    2D overcallThe strong option.
    2 of a major overcallWeak Two
    3+ of a suitWeak, pre-emptive.
    2NT overcallthe minors
    3NT overcallto play, with a long minor
    4+NT overcallthe minors

    PRECISION ASKING BID CONTINUATIONS

    1M or 2mTAB, reTAB, CAB, reCAB, Alpha, Beta apply
    1NTCAB, reCAB, Alpha, Beta apply
    2NTSuit AB, CAB, reCAB, Beta apply
    3H, 3S, 4C, 4DCAB, Beta apply

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 1D (0-7)

    new suitUsually 5+ card suit (could be 4441 or 4414 if major), 5+ losing tricks, non-forcing
    1NTBalanced, 16-18/19 (depending on partnership agreement).
    2 of a major5-card suit, 0-4 losing tricks, forcing
    2NTBalanced, 19/20-21 (depending on partnership agreement).
    3 suit6-card suit, 0-3 losing tricks, forcing.
    3NT24-26 balanced.
    4 of a major8+ card suit, stronger than a NAMYATS 4C/D opener.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 1D (0-7) ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM: Jackson-Kokish Relay

  • Jackson-Kokish Relay is a system played by partnerships that want to use an opening 2NT as Unusual.

  • 1NT without 1H puppet16-18, as usual
    1H 1S 1NT1H is a puppet for a forced 1S response, then 1NT shows 19-21 points.
    2NT without 1H puppet22-24
    1H 1S 2NT1H is a puppet for a forced 1S response, then 2NT shows 25-27 points.

    FINN AND DAVID'S DEFENCE TO A PRECISION 1C (16+) 1D (0-7)

    2D overcalldiamonds and a major
    Doublethe majors
    1H/1S overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level.
    1NT overcallthe minors
    2C overcallclubs and a major
    2 of a major overcallWeak Two
    3+ of a suitWeak, pre-emptive.
    2NT overcallthe minors
    3NT overcallto play, with a long minor
    4+NT overcallthe minors

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 1D (0-7) NEW SUIT (usually 5 cards, non-forcing)

    0-3 Dist Ptspass
    4-5 Dist PtsRaise denomination (suit or Notrump), or bid Spades with 4+
    6-7 Dist PtsJump raise denomination (suit or Notrump)
    6-7 Dist Pts5+ and no support, bid new suit

    ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM

    Pass0-4, 2 card support
    Raise2-4, 3 card support
    No-trumps5-7, no 5 carder
    new suit5-7, 5 carder
    Jump Raise5-7, 4 card support
    Jump new suitImpossible negative
    Jump NTImpossible Negative in opener's suit

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 1D (0-7) 1NT (16-19)

  • Essentially, from here on this is a standard no-trump auction. Mostly normal-looking systems, with some options as below.

  • passto play
    2Cnon-promissory Stayman with 6-7 points, might use to invite without a 4-card major
    2D/H0-6 Dist Pts, transfer and Pass (unless opener super-accepts)
    2Stransfer to 3C
    3Ctransfer to 3D
    3 of a suitMight alternatively be a splinter, showing a singleton.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 1D (0-7) 1NT (16-19?) 2C (non-promissory Stayman, 6-7)

    2D16-17 and no major
    2H/S16-17 with major (up the line)
    2NT18-19 "bad" and no major
    3C18-19 with major/s, responder puppets to 3D, opener shows major
    3D18-19 "good" with no major, responder normally bids 3N

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 1D (0-7) 2NT (20?-21)

    3CStayman or Impossible Negative
    3 suiteither natural or transfer, according to partnership agreement
    any gameto play

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 1D (0-7) JUMP NEW SUIT

  • The simplified option is to treat as a Strong Two opening bid, with a raise showing some values.

  • 2NT0-3, doubleton support.
    raise0-3, 3-card support.
    jump raise4-7, 3-card support.
    new suit4-7, non-rubbish 4-card suit.
    jump new suitImpossible Negative in opener's suit.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 3C (black shortage)

    3Drelay asking responder to show shortage: 3H for clubs or 3S for spades.
    passto play
    any gameto play
    4Casks controls (0-2, 3, 4...)

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 3D (red shortage)

    3Hrelay asking responder to show shortage: 3S for diamonds or 3NT for hearts.
    passto play
    any gameto play
    4Casks controls (0-2, 3, 4...)

    PRECISION CLUB: 2C (11-15, 6+ clubs and no 5-card major) - 2D (relay)

    2H/S4-card suit & 11-13
    2Nbalanced
    3Csingle-suited with clubs
    3D4D & 5C
    3H/S4-card suit & 14-15
    3NSolid clubs & 14-15 (3S/N non-std)

    PRECISION CLUB: 2D (11-15, diamond shortage) - 2NT (11+ relay)

    3C3415 (aid: 1st step black 3C is only 3S)
    3D4315 (aid: 2nd step red 3D is only 3H)
    3H4414 with 11-13 points (aid: 3rd step is weak)
    3S4414 with 14-15 points (aid: 4th step is strong)
    3NT4414 with DA or DK (aid: 3N is stopper)
    4C4405 with 11-13 points (aid: 4C is no stopper, weak)
    4D4405 with 14-15 points (aid: 4D is no stopper, strong)

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) NEW SUIT (game-forcing)

    new suit up to 2DNatural.
    raise responder's suitShows fit.
    no-trumps16-19 HCP, balanced and no support.
    jump in no-trumps20-21 or 24+ HCP ("Good-bad"), balanced and no support. If playing Beta Asking Bids followed by signoff attempt, responder may make Quantitative Notrump raise as slam try.
    jump in a suitNatural, 5+ card suit, showing extra length and values.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) NEW SUIT (game-forcing) - ASKING BIDS

    new suit up to 2DAlpha Cuebid (Support Asking Bids, SAB)
    raise responder's suitTrump Asking Bid (TAB)
    no-trumpsBeta
    jump in no-trumpsDelta
    jump in a suitDelta

    FINN AND DAVID'S DEFENCE TO A PRECISION 1C (16+) AND GAME-FORCING RESPONSE

    Doubletakeout (and aggressive) if the doubled bid is natural, lead-directing if artificial
    2D overcalldiamonds and a major
    1H/1S overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level.
    1NT overcallthe minors
    2C overcallclubs and a major
    2 of a major overcallWeak Two
    3+ of a suitWeak, pre-emptive.
    2NT overcallthe minors
    3NT overcallto play, with a long minor
    4+NT overcallthe minors

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 1NT (8-13)

    2CStayman
    2D/H/SNatural. Various Precision follow-up treatments: natural, Support or Suit AB.
    2NTArtificial, shows 5+ Clubs (some Precision play natural).

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 1NT (8-13) 2C (Stayman)

  • Complicated transfer-approach system. Simpler alternatives are also used.

  • 2D4H and 8-10 HCP (may have Spades)
    2H4S and 8-10 HCP
    2S8-10 HCP without 4 card major
    2NT11-13 HCP with 4333 shape
    3C11-13 HCP with Clubs and another 4 card suit
    3D11-13 HCP with 4 Diamonds and 4 Hearts
    3H11-13 HCP with 4 Hearts and 4 Spades
    3S11-13 HCP with 4 Spades and 4 Diamonds
    3NT11-13 HCP and poor 5 card suit

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) 2NT (14+)

    3CBaron, bid 4 card up-the-line (or Suit Asking Bids, SAB).
    3D/H/S5+ card suit natural, might use SAB.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) CONSTRUCTIVE JUMP SHIFT

    passto play
    gameto play
    2NTagrees partner's trump suit, asks to cue-bid singletons
    3NTmaximum, denies trump support
    new suitnatural, forcing
    raisethree-card support

    PRECISION CLUB: 1D (11-15, 2+ DIAMONDS)

  • With 11 HCP don't bid with 4333 or 4432 without a major, or if strength only in the short suits.

  • Pass0-7 (although you might bid with a max and long suit)
    1H/1S8-15, 4-card suit. With both majors, start with hearts unless holding five spades. Bid 4 card major even with a longer minor.
    1NT8-10 balanced
    2 of a minor11+, natural, denies a 4-card major
    2 of a major16+, 4-card suit (?) -- NOT SURE ABOUT THE FOUR-CARD SUIT BIT
    2NT16+ balanced (old-fashioned is 11-13 balanced)
    3C16+, 5-card suit
    3DPre-emptive, 5 card support
    3NT14-15 balanced, 4 card major (old-fashioned is 14-16)

    FINN AND DAVID'S DEFENCE TO A PRECISION 1D (2+ diamonds)

  • Bid as normal.
  • FINN AND DAVID'S DEFENCE TO AN EXTREME PRECISION 1D (0+ diamonds)

  • Comparatively rare and we don't expect it to come up. Doesn't have a Weak Two in hearts, forcing a hand with hearts to choose between 1H and 3H.

  • 2Ddiamonds, just like a 2C overcall of 1C in our system
    2HMichaels for the majors
    all other bidsas normal

    PRECISION CLUB: 1D (11-15, 2+ diamonds) 1H/S (8-15, 4-card suit)

    raise11-13, 4-card support
    new suitnatural
    1NT11-13 balanced
    2D11-13, 6-card suit
    jump raise14-15, 4-card support
    Jump to 2NT14-15 balanced
    Jump rebid14-15, 6-card suit
    Jump to 3C14-15, 5-5 in the minors

    PRECISION CLUB: 1D (11-15, 2+ diamonds) 2m (11+, denies a 4-card major)

  • Opener to show point range and stopper in major suits, since the partnership already knows they don't have a major-suit fit.

  • diamonds11-13, no stopper
    2 of a major11-13, stopper in bid suit
    2NT11-13, stopper in both majors
    3C14-15, no stopper
    3 of a major14-15, stopper in bid suit
    3NT14-15, stopper in both majors

    PRECISION CLUB: 1D (11-15, 2+ diamonds) 2NT (16+ balanced)

    3Cunbalanced minimum, after which a 3D continuation asks for majors
    3Dbalanced maximum
    3NTbalanced minimum
    new suitunbalanced maximum

    PRECISION CLUB: 1D (11-15, 2+ diamonds) JUMP SHIFT

    raiseminimum
    2NTmaximum balanced
    New suit or 3Dminimum unbalanced, at most doubleton support
    3NTminimum balanced, 2 card support

    PRECISION CLUB: 1D (11-15, 2+ diamonds) 2M 2NT

    3Cunbalanced minimum
    3Dbalanced maximum
    new suitunbalanced max
    3NTbalanced minimum

    PRECISION CLUB: 1H/S (11-15, 5-card suit)

  • Bid longer minor first unless weak hand. Goren specifies that game try bids are help asking bids in Precision, i.e. looking for support in that suit. More common is game tries showing long suit, although they are very similar.

  • Pass0-7 no game, poor support
    Single raise8-10, 3 card support. Opener will pass with minimum or bid a new suit with max.
    Jump Raise11-13, 3 carder support (Qxx or better)
    Triple Raisemax 10 points, 14-15 with distribution, 4 carder
    Double Jump in new suitSplinter, 11-15 and 4-card support, with void or singleton in suit
    New suit without jump1S over 1H is 8-15, while a 2 level response requires 11 (less with very good suit). 2H over 1S shows at least 5 cards.

    PRECISION CLUB: 2C OPENING (11-15 points, 6+ clubs and no 5-card major)

    2DWaiting/query; asks Opener for a 4 card major
    2H/SInvitational, 11-13 with a five-card suit
    2NTInvitational
    3CCompetitive
    3DInviting 3 Notrump (no 4 card major, forcing to 4m)
    3H/S14+ with a 6-card suit, game forcing

    PRECISION CLUB: 2D OPENING (11-15 points, diamond shortage)

    2H/S/3CTo play, 0-11
    2NTQuery asking; have 11 HCP+ with shortness to ask.
    3H/Sgame-forcing, 5+ H/S

    PRECISION CLUB: ALPHA CUE BID (SUPPORT ASKING BIDS)

  • Responses go in steps, based on controls. Some play that jump responses show 0-1 trump support for opener and either 5-5 or a longer 2-suited hand or a broken 7+ card suit if rebid.

  • 1st0-3 controls and Jxx or less
    2nd4+ controls and Jxx or less
    3rd0-3 controls and Qxx or above
    4th4+ controls and Qxx or above
    5th4+ controls and Qxxx or above

    PRECISION CLUB: TRUMP ASKING BID (TAB), e.g. 1C (16+) 1M (g/f) raise to 2M

  • Steps based on trump length & honours. Repeat TABs are also possible to show specific honours. If playing asking bids, opener may TAB after Alpha response.

  • 1st5+ trump with 0 of top 3 (AKQ)
    2nd5+ trump with 1 of top 3
    3rd5+ trump with 2 of top 3
    4th6+ trump with 1 of top 3
    5th6+ trump with 2 of top 3
    6th5+ trump with AKQ

    PRECISION CLUB: CONTROL ASKING BID (CAB) - NEW SUIT < 5C

  • CABs are only on after TABs (or Alpha or Unusual Positive) and there are partnerships which reverse the responses (i.e. "slow shows"). Control Asking Bid (CAB) about new suit. Repeat CAB asks shortage/strength (1st is short, 2nd is honour/s). Steps based on controls:

  • 1stNo controls, Jxx or worse
    2nd3rd round control, Q or xx
    3rd2nd round control, K or x
    4th1st round control, A or void
    5thAK or AQ

    PRECISION CLUB: COMPRESSED CONTROL ASKING BID (CAB) - NEW SUIT 5C+

  • Compressed Control Asking Bids (CAB) about new suit. Steps based on controls. Again some partnerships reverse the responses ("slow shows").

  • 1stNo controls, Jxx or worse
    2nd2nd round control, K or x
    3rd1st round control, A or void

    PRECISION CLUB: BETA ASKING BIDS (BAB)

  • Optional Beta Asking Bids, used when partners do not have a suit fit, e.g. (a) 1C 1NT 2NT, (b) 1C 3D 3H 3S 4C, (c) 1C 4C 4D. Responder rebids show controls. If playing Beta, on after TAB, Alpha, or Notrump response.

  • 1st0-2 controls (or 4 if prior Unusual Positive)
    2nd3 controls (or 5 if prior Unusual Positive)
    3rd4 controls (or 6 if prior Unusual Positive)
    4th5 controls (or 7 if prior Unusual Positive)

    PRECISION CLUB: SUIT ASKING BID (SAB)

  • Suit Asking Bid: steps showing trump support for opener:

  • 1st2-3 trump, no honours
    2ndDoubleton honour
    3rdTripleton honour
    4thDoubleton, 2 honours
    5thTripleton, 2 honours
    6th4 trump

    PRECISION CLUB: DELTA ASKING BID (DAB)

  • Delta Asking Bids show Aces:

  • Lowest suitAce in named suit, may have additional Aces
    Skip suitPossess Ace, missing Aces in skipped suit/s
    NotrumpNo Aces in suits skipped
    Cheapest level trump suitNo Aces

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) + OPPOSING DOUBLE

    Pass0-4 HCP
    1D5-7 HCP
    1H/Sgame-forcing, five-card suit
    Redoublegame-forcing, usually balanced
    1NT8-13 HCP and stoppers if Double shows majors

    FINN + DAVID'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER THE DOUBLE

    passto play
    any major-suit bid, at any levelto play
    no-trumpsasks for partner's five-card major.
    2Dto play
    3 of a minoruseful hand with a good minor suit
    3NTto play
    4 of a minorsplinter, promising an unspecified major. Partner is to assume it's hearts, then responder can correct if necessary.
    4NTTwo-Suited Blackwood.
    5+ of anythingto play.
    double after interventionTake-out, for both partners.
    redouble after doubleShowing strong holdings in both minors. It might even be possible to start doubling the opposition if they start running from suit to suit and everything's breaking badly for them.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) + OPPOSING 1D OVERCALL

  • Same system after all 1-level suit overcalls.

  • Pass0-4 HCP or a Trap Pass. If the latter and opener doubles, psyche overcaller will usually flee.
    Double5+ HCP or 5-8 unbalanced, one-round force unless opener rebids 1NT
    Cue bidGame Forcing, no stopper (ala Western Cuebid)

    FINN + DAVID'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER A 1D OVERCALL OF A PRECISION 1C

    passTo play.
    doublePenalties.
    redoubleA strong hand that would like to have a constructive auction and make natural forcing suit bids.
    minimum no-trump bidForcing, asking partner to describe their hand further. Often the best first move if holding a strong hand.
    raiseNatural, never Minorwood.
    the other suitNatural, non-forcing.
    lower of the two options for partner's unknown suit (if non-jump)Pass-or-correct
    higher of the two options for partner's unknown suit (if non-jump and below game)Pass-or-correct, promising a significantly better holding in the lower-ranking suit because partner would be being forced a level higher.
    jump in any suitNatural, pre-emptive.
    jump to 3NT (if non-passed hand)to play
    jump to 4NTRKC Blackwood, agreeing partner's trump suit
    other jump in no-trumpspre-emptive, asking partner to bid their unknown suit

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) + OPPOSING 1H/S OVERCALL

  • Same system after all 1-level suit overcalls.

  • Pass0-4 HCP or a Trap Pass. If the latter and opener doubles, psyche overcaller will usually flee.
    Double5+ HCP or 5-8 unbalanced, one-round force unless opener rebids 1NT
    Cue bidGame Forcing, no stopper (ala Western Cuebid)

    FINN + DAVID'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER A 1H/S OVERCALL OF A PRECISION 1C

  • The same system as after normal overcalls, as if the opponents weren't playing Precision.

  • No-trumpsto play
    1NTNatural and invitational, expected to be a useful intermediate hand or equivalent. Might also be stronger and downgrading for shortage in partner's suit.
    New suitforcing if the next hand passed
    Any raiseto play and possibly pre-emptive, unless Minorwood
    Cue bid of the opposition's last-bid denominationUnassuming Cue Bid, promising a solid raise, but only if opponent's bid can be expected normally to contain 3+ cards and/or has been supported by their partner. This overrides the "probe for 3NT" meaning, which doesn't apply as a direct response to partner's overcall.
    Cue bid of any other denominationnatural, showing a good suit there despite the fact that the opposition had previously bid it.
    2NTNatural and invitational, showing values appropriate for what's expected from partner's bid at the position and vulnerability.
    Jump to 2NTNatural and invitational, showing a solid opening hand with further valuable features, e.g. either a useful holding in partner's suit or additional high-card strength.
    Jump shiftfit-jump, forcing. Shows trump support with a side-suit, at least 5-4, ostensibly not strong enough for game but might also be a stronger hand that's interested in a higher contract and is planning to keep bidding.
    Jump cue bidsplinter, again not a "probe for 3NT".
    2NT over a weak jump overcallOgust
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    4NTRKC Blackwood
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) + NATURAL 1NT OVERCALL, i.e. strong and balanced -- NOT PLAYING THIS

  • I've removed this from our system, for simplicity. If we ever put it back, it would use the same system as after a normal 1NT, but with the points ranges tweaked for the greater strength of the no-trump overcall. If holding a strong balanced hand with no biddable suit, just shut the hell up and wait to see how things transpire. Overcalling a natural 1NT is unlikely to lead to game and might lead to carnage.

  • DoubleModerate HCP, ability to penalise at least 1 suit.
    2C/D5+ Hearts/Spades, game forcing.
    2H/S5+ Hearts/Spades, non-forcing.

    PRECISION CLUB: OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C (16+) 1D (0-7) + OPPOSING 1NT OVERCALL FOR MINORS

  • Known as an "Unusual Versus Unusual" type treatment

  • Pass16-18 HCP, balanced
    DoublePenalty oriented
    2 of a minorHearts/Spades, extra values (Unusual Versus Unusual), Forcing 1 round
    2 of a major16-18 HCP, Hearts/Spades, Non-Forcing
    2NTUpper 1NT values, stoppers in minors

    FINN + DAVID'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER A 1NT OVERCALL (SHOWING THE MINORS) OF A PRECISION 1C

    any minor suit bidto play
    major suitnatural, 5-card suit, forcing
    major suit if passed handto play
    major suit (if jump)to play
    3NTto play
    other no-trump bidasking for partner's better minor

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) + 2C OVERCALL

  • Same system after all 2-level suit overcalls.

  • Double6-8 HCP, any shape (Responsive Double). 1 round forcing unless opener rebids 2NT.
    New suit5+ card suit, game forcing.
    2NT8-10 or 14+ ("good-bad") with stoppers.
    3NT11-13 with stoppers.

    FINN + DAVID'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER A 2C OVERCALL OF A PRECISION 1C

    passto play
    any major-suit bid, at any levelto play
    no-trumpsasks for partner's five-card major.
    2Dto play
    3 of a minoruseful hand with a good minor suit
    3NTto play
    4 of a minorsplinter, promising an unspecified major. Partner is to assume it's hearts, then responder can correct if necessary.
    4NTTwo-Suited Blackwood.
    5+ of anythingto play.
    double after interventionTake-out, for both partners.
    redouble after doubleShowing strong holdings in both minors. It might even be possible to start doubling the opposition if they start running from suit to suit and everything's breaking badly for them.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) + 2D OVERCALL

  • Same system after all 2-level suit overcalls.

  • Double6-8 HCP, any shape (Responsive Double). 1 round forcing unless opener rebids 2NT.
    New suit5+ card suit, game forcing.
    2NT8-10 or 14+ ("good-bad") with stoppers.
    3NT11-13 with stoppers.

    FINN + DAVID'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER A 2D OVERCALL OF A PRECISION 1C

    passgarbage with lots and lots of diamonds
    2Hrelay
    suit bid from 2S to 3H5-card suit, natural and forcing
    2NT8-11, balanced
    higher suit bidpowerful 6-card or longer suit
    3NT12+, balanced

    CONTINUATION AFTER A STRONG 2D OVERCALL OF A PRECISION 1C AND A 2H RELAY FROM PARTNER

    2NT20+ balanced
    3NTVery strong and to play, with a long minor.
    suit up to 3H5-card suit, natural
    higher suit bidpowerful 6-card or longer suit

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) + 2H/S OVERCALL

  • Same system after all 2-level suit overcalls.

  • Double6-8 HCP, any shape (Responsive Double). 1 round forcing unless opener rebids 2NT.
    New suit5+ card suit, game forcing.
    2NT8-10 or 14+ ("good-bad") with stoppers.
    3NT11-13 with stoppers.

    FINN + DAVID'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER A WEAK TWO OVERCALL OF A PRECISION 1C

    New suit bidForcing, unless the opponents have intervened or unless opener's Weak Two was in third seat after two passes.
    Any raiseTo play, possibly pre-emptive. It's never Minorwood.
    2NTOgust, even when responder is a passed hand.
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTTo play
    4NTBlackwood, even if partner's suit's a minor
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) + 3-LEVEL OVERCALL

    DoubleGame Forcing
    New suit5+ card suit, game forcing.
    3NT8-11 HCP with stoppers.

    PRECISION CLUB: 1C (16+) + 4-LEVEL OVERCALL

    Double"Cards" (defensive values)

    PRECISION CLUB: OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C (16+) 1D (0-7) + OPPOSING 1H/S OVERCALL

    Pass16-18 HCP, balanced
    DoubleTakeout
    1NT17-19 HCP, stopper
    2NT20-21 HCP, stopper
    Cue bid19+ Dist. Pts., cuebid lacking stopper

    PRECISION CLUB: OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C (16+) 1D (0-7) + DOUBLE FOR DIAMONDS -- NOT PLAYING THIS

  • Not part of our current system when defending against a Precision Club. A double after 1C 1D shows the same thing it does after 1C, i.e. the majors.

  • Pass16-18 HCP, balanced
    1NT17-18 HCP, diamond stopper
    2C/D/H/S, etcPrecision "systems on", ignore opponent's Double

    PRECISION CLUB: OPENER'S DOUBLES - GENERAL APPROACH

    1C (2x) dble (3x) dbleTakeout
    3rd DoublePenalty
    2nd DoublePenalty if responder's Double was Penalty

    RESPONSES TO MINI 1NT OPENING (10-12)

  • The following is a possible system for players using the Mini 1NT (10-12). Note the lack of transfers.

  • 2CStayman
    2DForcing Stayman (to game); may not have 4 card major
    2NGame invitational, denies a 4 card major
    2H/S/3C/Dto play
    3H/SGame forcing, 5-card suit; Opener chooses 3NT or 4H/S.
    (dble) passTo play; may be 9-13 HCP
    (dble) redbleOne suited hand (Moscow Escape), opener puppets to 2C, responder Passes or bids suit if required
    (dble) 2C/D/HResponder has support for suit and higher suit (Moscow Escape), opener Passes or bids lowest reasonable suit
    (dble) 2NUnusual Notrump for the minors (Lebensohl "off")
    (any) 2xTo play
    (any) doubleTakeout Lebensohl (some play standard penalty treatment)
    (2x) 3xStayman without stopper (not Western Cuebid)

    MINI 1NT: RESPONDER'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER 2C STAYMAN + RESPONSE

    2HCrawling or Garbage Stayman, to play or correct to 2S.
    2NTGame invitational, denies a 4 card major
    New suit at 3 level6+ card suit, invitational.

    MINI 1NT: RESPONDER'S CONTINUATIONS AFTER 2D FORCING STAYMAN + RESPONSE

    New suit at 3 level6+ card suit, game-forcing (slam try).

    DEFENCE TO THE MULTI 2D

  • In general, when defending against a multi one should assume that the multi bidder has one of the weak options for his bid, since they occur much more frequently than the strong ones. It is also important to bid aggressively on the first round of bidding after the multi has been opened, before the opener's partner knows what type of hand he has.

  • Doublebalanced 13-15 or any hand with 19+, the range being clarified by subsequent bidding. The hand will usually pass if it has the lower range or bid again with the higher.
    2 of a majornatural, showing 5+ cards in the suit bid and good opening bid values
    2NTnatural no-trump overcall, 15-17
    4CLeaping Michaels, 5-5 in clubs and another
    4DLeaping Michaels, 5-5 in diamonds and a major
    4NT if the opposition have pre-empted to the four-level5-5, two places to play
    other bidsstrong and natural, following the principle that if the opponent's bid is weak, our bid should be strong.

    FLANNERY 2D

  • An opening Flannery 2D bid shows 11-15 HCP with exactly four spades and five hearts. The purpose of Flannery is to avoid rebid problems with this hand type; a 1H opening sometimes leads to trouble when opener cannot bid 2S (a reverse) at his next turn.

  • passto play, 6+ diamonds
    2 of a majorto play
    2NT relayasking about strength and minor-suit distribution
    3Cto play, 6+ clubs
    3Dinvitational, 6+ diamonds
    3Hinvitational, 3+ hearts
    3Sinvitational, 4+ spades
    3NTto play
    4 of a minortransfer to 4H/S
    any gameto play
    4NTRKC Blackwood

    DEFENCE TO THE FLANNERY 2D (or 2H)

  • Flannery is a 2D (or occasionally 2H) opening to show very approximately weak no-trump strength, i.e. (10)11-14, 5+ hearts and exactly four spades. This is neither a weak nor a particularly strong hand, so our overcalls could either be aggressive or a decent opening hand... we'll probably discover in time what works best.

  • Doublestrong balanced 15+
    2H3-suited take-out
    2Snatural, 5+
    2NTminors
    3 of a minornatural
    3Hgame-forcing
    3SWeak Two, 6+ with a good suit
    3NTTo play, probably with a long minor
    4CLeaping Michaels, 5-5 in clubs and spades
    4DLeaping Michaels, 5-5 in diamonds and spades
    4HExclusion Blackwood, no suit specified
    Any gameto play

    FLANNERY 2D 2NT RELAY

  • In competition, the specialized Flannery responses and rebids are on. Any double of an opposing overcall does not indicate a 'stolen bid' but is for penalties.

  • 3 of a minorthree-card suit and a singleton in the other minor
    3H4522, minimum
    3S4522, maximum
    3NT4522, both minors stopped
    4 of a minorfour-card suit and a void in the other minor

    POLISH CLUB

  • The Polish 1C opening could be one of three hand types, only one of which is specifically club-oriented. It's most likely to be a weak 1NT. There's thus no need to defend aggressively against it, as one would against a Precision Club, so we'll be bidding exactly as normal against Polish Club bidders.

  • 1C(a) balanced 12-14 with no 5-card major and denying a diamond suit, mustn't rebid clubs, (b) 15-17 unbalanced with 5+ clubs, will rebid clubs, (c) any 18+
    1D12-17, 4+ diamonds with possible canape (longer clubs)
    1 of a major12-17, 5+ cards
    1NT15-17 balanced
    2CPrecision: 11-14 with 5 clubs and a 4-card major, or 6 clubs
    2D6-11, Weak Two in either major (limited Multi)
    2H6-11, 5-5 in hearts and another
    2S6-11, 5-5 in spades and a minor
    2NT6-11, 5-5 in minors
    Higher suit bidspre-emptive
    3NTGambling 3NT

    POLISH CLUB 1C

  • The 1C opening showed (a) balanced 12-14 with 2-4 cards in each major and 2-3 diamonds, mustn't rebid clubs, (b) 15-17 unbalanced with 5+ clubs, will rebid clubs, (c) any 18+

  • 1D(a) 0-8 negative, denying a major if in the upper range (7-8), (b) 9-11 unbalanced, denying a major, (c) 12-16 balanced, denying a major and unsuitable for declaring no-trumps.
    1 of a major7+, 4+ cards.
    1NT9-11 balanced, no 4-card major.
    2 of a minor5-card suit, game-forcing
    2 of a majorStrong jump shift, semi-solid suit and slam interest.
    2NT12+, game-forcing, denying a major.
    3 of a minorGood 6-card suit, invitational (9-11).
    3 of a major7-card suit with two high honours, nothing outside.

    DEFENCE TO POLISH CLUB

  • Exactly as normal.

  • Any bid in the pass-out seatA king weaker than when bid directly.
    DoubleOne of two hand types. DEFAULT ASSUMPTION: take-out, opening strength, support for unbid suits. This is a "say it once and shut up" bid that thereafter leaves all competitive decisions to partner and the doubler is not expected to bid again unless partner finds a bid that asks them to do so. To do so shows extreme strength (17+) and previous assumptions about shape no longer apply. NOTE: this bid promises proper opening values (i.e. you'd been going to open the bidding if the opponents had passed) AND support for the unbid suits. Opening a 4441 10-count "because the shape is perfect" is a violation of all that is good and will cause cancer in kittens.
    Suit overcall5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level
    Jump suit overcallWeak Two, 6-10 and a 6-card suit
    Suit jump in the pass-out seat10-14 actual points (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies a four-card major side-suit, like a fourth-seat 2H opening.
    Suit jump in spades in the pass-out seat8-12 (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies four hearts, like a fourth-seat 2S opening.
    Greater jump suit overcallPre-emptive
    1NT from a passed hand (protective)Stretching with a good eleven-count and the usual transferred-king principle.
    1NT from a passed hand (non-protective)5-5 shape and a distribution that can't be shown with either Unusual 2NT or Michaels, e.g. the black suits after a diamond opening. If there's no such unshowable distribution (i.e. after a major opening), it's the LOWER of the two Michaels options, i.e. (1S) passed-hand-1NT would show clubs+hearts.
    1NTNormal 1NT overcall, treating the 1C opening as noise. Doesn't need to worry too much about the club suit, since the 1C opener isn't promising one.
    2C cue bidNatural club overcall. This remains true even if the opponents are playing a natural system and their 1C actually shows clubs. Our 2C overcall retains the same meaning irrespective of that.
    2D over one of a minorMichaels, 5-5 in the majors
    2NT5-5 in the lowest two unbid suits, Unusual 2NT
    Jump to 3-level cue bidasking partner to bid 3NT if they have a stopper in this suit
    Jump to 3NTTo play, long running minor.
    4NTAcol 4NT, asking for specific aces
    5NTasking for specific kings

    POLISH CLUB 1D

    1NT7-10, no four-card major
    2Cnatural, promises 5 clubs, one-round force. Rebidding diamonds by Opener shows length (5 diamonds) and does not specify strength. The other 2-level bids show 4-card openings in the range of 12-14 HCP.
    2DInverted Minors, 10+ HCP, 4 diamonds
    2NT11-12, no four-card major
    3DInverted Minors, pre-emptive.
    other bidsnatural

    POLISH CLUB ONE OF A MAJOR

    1NTNon-forcing, but a 2NT continuation from responder is forcing if opener rebids his suit. Opener is expected to show shortage.
    2CSemi-natural. For opener to rebid their suit doesn't show extra length, but merely minimum high card points. A 2NT shows strength (15-17).
    2NTlimit raise, agreeing opener's suit
    jump raisepre-emptive
    jump shift by passed handinvitational (9-11)
    the next bid above a jump raiseUnspecified splinter, 9-12. Opener relays with the cheapest next bid to ask what the shortage is.
    higher jumpsome other kind of weird splinter-like thing, which the wikipedia page doesn't explain clearly

    POLISH CLUB 2D

  • Weak two in a major (limited Multi), 6+ cards, 6�11 HCP.

  • Part-score in majorpass or correct
    2NTrelay, forcing to 3 of the major. Opener shows extra strength by bidding a minor (3C for hearts, 3D for spades).
    3Csingle-suited game force, puppet to 3D
    3Dgame invitational with support for both majors
    4Casks opener to bid the suit below his major, so that responder can play the hand
    4Dasks opener to his suit
    any gameto play

    POLISH CLUB 2H

  • Any 5-5 with hearts (spades possible)

  • 2Spass or correct
    2NTasks for the second suit. With both majors, opener bids 3H.
    other bidsnatural

    RESPONSES TO ONE-LEVEL SUIT OPENINGS

    BIDRESPONSES TO OPENING 1CRESPONSES TO OPENING 1DRESPONSES TO OPENING 1HRESPONSES TO OPENING 1S
    PassVery weak (0-5 points), no desire to shut out opponents.
    Double of suit overcallTake-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double of an overcall and then pull partner's response when they do take it out is non-forcing with at least a five-card suit, since an immediate bid would have been forcing. (The logic is different after 1NT openings.)
    Double of no-trump overcallPenalties
    Redouble10+, wants to double for penalties, often a misfit. During the subsequent auction, the partnership has one standard takeout double "in the bank". This is in order to distinguish between a hand that simply wants to compete (will pass and wait for partner to make a takeout double) and one with game-forcing strength (will bid directly, forcing).
    Minimum cue bid of overcall where the partnership can still stop in part-score; i.e. below 3 of opener's suitUnassuming Cue-Bid, with trump support and intermediate points. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    1Dnatural, one-round force
    1Hnatural, one-round force
    1Snatural, one-round force
    1NT after overcallNatural, constructive, about 7.5-10 points and denying four cards in any unbid major. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.Natural, constructive, about 7.5-10 points. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.
    1NTA balanced hand with club support that doesn't have a four-card major, is too weak for 1C 2C and doesn't want to bid 1C 3C.single-suited in clubsUnable to make any other response, says nothing about shape
    New suit at 2 level after 1NT overcallNatural, non-forcing and to play, because a hand with game-going strength would have doubled.Natural, non-forcing and to play, because a hand with game-going strength would have doubled. Auctions like 1S (1NT) 2C from a passed hand no longer show a weak hand with three-card trump support because that's too dangerous after the 1NT overcall, while intermediate hands will just double.
    2C4+ clubs, game-forcingGame-forcing, assumed to be 4 cards but occasionally a waiting bid.
    2C if passed hand (uncontested auction)Exactly 3 diamonds, values to raise to the two level. Also denies a four-card major, so must have a natural club suit.
    2C if passed hand3-card support for partner, 2-level values and no better bid available. In an uncontested auction, denies a spade suit. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with clubs.3-card support for partner, 2-level values and no better bid available. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with clubs.
    2C after suit overcallExactly 3 diamonds, values to raise to the two level.
    2DGame-forcing, assumed to be 4 cards but occasionally a waiting bid.
    2D if passed hand3-card support for partner, intermediate points and no better bid available. In an uncontested auction, denies a spade suit. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with diamonds.3-card support for partner, intermediate points and no better bid available. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with diamonds.
    2HGame-forcing, 5 hearts
    2H if passed hand3-card support and a five-card heart suit, intermediate points. This still applies after a suit overcall or a double, but after a no-trump overcall it's natural and non-forcing, with hearts.
    Raise to 2Inverted Minor, 4+ trump support, denies a five-card major, forcing to 3m, 10-ish points or stronger.Weak, with trump support. If only three, had no better bid and in particular didn't much like the look of any of the less marginal responses (i.e. 1NT).
    Raise to 2 after overcallWeak, with trump support. If only three, had no better bid.
    Raise to 2 after doubleWeak, promises no strength at all
    2NT11-12, balanced, would have raised a weak 1NT to two. Denies a four-card major and four of partner's suit, so by inference must have at least four of the other minor.11-12, balanced, would have raised a weak 1NT to two. Denies a four-card major. This promises precisely a doubleton in partner's suit if a passed-hand 2D response had been available to show intermediate strength with three-card trump support.11-12, balanced, would have raised a weak 1NT to two. Denies four-card spade support. Also promises precisely a doubleton in partner's suit if a passed-hand 2D response had been available to show intermediate strength with three-card trump support. Any continuation in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    2NT after doubleIntermediate jump raise in partner's suit. (Might occasionally be a preliminary move on a much stronger hand.)
    2NT after overcallNatural, constructive, about 11-12 points. Good holding in the opponents' suit, preferably at least one and a half stops.
    Jump shiftStrong six-card suit, 16+ points. Still applies after any intervention except a 1NT overcall.
    Jump shift by passed hand or after 1NT overcallFit-Jump, two-suited, at least 5-4, trump support for partner. Forcing and normally shows an 8-loser hand or so, without enough strength to go to game.
    New suit response from a passed hand above 2 of opener's suit (after opponents' intervention)Whatever the same bid would have meant without the intervention, e.g. pass (pass) 1C (1S) 2H is a fit-jump in hearts, just as it would have been without the overcall.
    Jump raiseInverted Minor, 4+ trumps, denies a four-card major, weak. More informative than the equivalent Inverted Minor raise of a 1D opening bid, since the existence of the 1C 1NT alternative (also showing a club fit) means that partner has actually chosen to pre-empt instead of merely being forced to jump against their will by the bidding system.Inverted Minor, 4+ trumps, denies a four-card major, weak4-card support, intermediate (10 points or so)
    Jump raise to 3 after interventionPre-emptive. A redouble or an Unassuming Cue Bid is the bid to show an intermediate raise.
    Jump cue bid after overcallSplinter
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, denying a 4 card major. If the splinter is in a major, then by inference must have at least nine minor-suit cards. However if the splinter is in the other minor, then must have at least six-card trump support in a 6331 hand.Splinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    3NTstrong no-trump (i.e. balanced 15-17) with four-card trump support.
    Raise to 4mMinorwood
    Game raise (opponents silent)Shows shape rather than points, might be pre-emptive.
    Game raise (contested auction)To play.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.

    1C OPENER'S REBID

    BIDOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C-1D1C OPENER'S REBID AFTER ONE-LEVEL MAJOR SUIT RESPONSEOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C-1NT, SHOWING A CLUB FIT1C OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 7.5-10 CONSTRUCTIVE 1NT RESPONSE OVER AN OPPOSITION OVERCALLOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C-2C INVERTED MINOR RAISEOPENER'S REBID AFTER INVERTED MINOR 1X-3X (WEAK)1C/D OPENER'S REBID AFTER A WEAK SINGLE RAISE FROM RESPONDEROPENER'S REBID AFTER FIT-JUMP IN SUPPORT OF MINOROPENER'S REBID AFTER STRONG SINGLE-SUITED JUMP SHIFTOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C 3NT (SEMI-PUDDING)
    PassProhibited response; the fit-jump is a forcing bid.
    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.A balanced 12-14 point hand with poor trumps and a preference for playing in 1NT rather than the club contract.Natural, nothing to say.Not interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.Partial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.Shows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.Strong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penaltiesShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.Not even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    MajorNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, but this doesn't guarantee five clubs. Might also be 4441 with a singleton diamond.
    1NTBalanced, 12-14. Is unlikely to have a four-card major, since we open the major on a 12-14 balanced hand with a four-card major and a four-card minor. (Theoretically a 12-14 5422 hand might choose to open the minor rather than the major, but then if so it would then seem reasonable to continue with the major after 1C 1D.) Thus, since opener has also denied diamonds by failing to support them, there's an inference that the bid is probably single-suited in clubs.12-14 balanced, unlikely to hold a four-card major since we open the major when holding a 4432 balanced hand with a major and a minor.
    2CTo play, not promising any additional length since the partnership has a known club fit.natural
    New suittrial bidNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, denies trump support
    New suit below first suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced.
    Rebidnatural, denies trump support
    Rebid first suit5+ trumps, denies support for partner and any side suit en route. If the hand must thus be single-suited, then the bid promises 6 trumps.
    ReverseNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, reverse, normally 16+ points
    2DNatural reverse, showing 5-4 in the minors.
    2D, 2H, 2SNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2 of a majorNatural reverse, showing a second suit and 5-4 shape. (Doesn't promise a five-card major, even though responder's denied a four-card major.)
    2 suitNatural and shape-showing, second suit. If later rebid, shows a five-card suit.
    Raise4-card support100% pre-emptive, to playtrump fit.
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalancedInvitational to 3NT. Game-forcing would have been more consistent with the rest of the system, mind you.Maximum weak no-trump, doesn't deny a 4-card majorgame-forcingforcing relay12-14 balanced, no support for partner's suit
    3CTo play.
    Jump rebidBig six-card suit, reversing strength.
    3-level jump rebidSix good trumps, normally 16+ points. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    raise to 3To play, single-suited
    New suit up to 3-levelA probe for 3NT, showing a feature.
    New suit at 3 levelGame-forcing splinter, agreeing clubs.Auto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    New suit at 3-levelShows feature and a strong hand making a game try, often a probe for 3NT but might also be a trial bid for 5m. Not game-forcing, so the auction can stop in 4m.
    Jump shiftNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape or 5-5 if a game-forcing 2NT rebid was available, game-forcingnatural, game-forcingnatural, game-forcing
    Jump raise4-card support, normally 16+ pointsTrump fit, reversing strength. If four of a minor, Minorwood.
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitSplinter, showing game-forcing values and no interest in exploring major-suit fits.splinter
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.Splinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter, agreeing partner's suit. If there are two splinters, e.g. 1D 1S 3H and 1D 1S 4H, then the higher one is the full-blooded game-forcing splinter and the lower one is merely a strong game invitation with reversing strength and the indicated small singleton.splinter
    3NTto play, with a long running minorto playTo play, with a good balanced 12-14, no four-card major and 5+ of the bid suitto playto play, with a long running minorto playto play, if jump then a void in partner's suit
    4-level jump rebidMinorwood
    New suit at 4-leveltrial bidCue bid, since there's no Serious 3NT available to indicate a desire to cue-bid as there would be if the agreed suit was a major.
    Raise fit-jump major3-card support
    Raise fit-jump minor to 3game try, showing supporting values
    Raise fit-jump minor to 4Minorwood (two-suited)
    Agreed suit, 4-levelMinorwood
    Agreed suit, any other levelto play
    4CMinorwoodMinorwoodMinorwood
    4DMinorwood
    Raise to 4 (jump)Minorwood
    raise to 4Minorwood
    4 of another suitExclusion Blackwood
    New suit at 4 levelExclusion Blackwood
    raise to game or slamTo play
    Jump raise to gameTo play, shape rather than strength
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTTwo-suited Blackwood for both bid suitsquantitative invitation to 6NTShows a very strong hand that is confident of making at least game in the agreed suit and is in no way whatsoever just being pre-emptive. Partner is allowed to have a bash at slam with significant extras, while of course if the opposition intervene then they'll almost certainly be going for a big number.RKC Blackwood for partner's majorBlackwood, for responder's suit if majorQuantitative, inviting slam in no-trumps.
    5Cto playGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.to play
    5-level rebidCompletely solid trump suit, no losers even opposite a void. Responder's next bid is RKC Blackwood response, showing Key Cards.
    Raise to 5+to play, possibly pre-emptive
    Jump raise to 54-card support for partner in an unbalanced hand, but without any key cards or small singletons.
    New suit at 5 levelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    5 of another suitComplete two-suiter
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion BlackwoodExclusion Blackwood
    5NTGrand Slam Forcequantitative invitation to 7NTQuantitative, inviting grand slam in no-trumps
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.Complete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretationNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1D OPENER'S REBID

    BID1D OPENER'S REBID AFTER ONE-LEVEL MAJOR SUIT RESPONSEOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1D-1NT1D OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 7.5-10 CONSTRUCTIVE 1NT RESPONSE OVER AN OPPOSITION OVERCALL1D OPENER'S REBID AFTER A GAME-FORCING TWO-OVER-ONE 2C RESPONSEOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1D-2C FROM A PASSED HAND (4+ clubs and exactly three diamonds, weak)OPENER'S REBID AFTER 1D-2D INVERTED MINOR RAISEOPENER'S REBID AFTER INVERTED MINOR 1X-3X (WEAK)1C/D OPENER'S REBID AFTER A WEAK SINGLE RAISE FROM RESPONDEROPENER'S REBID AFTER FIT-JUMP IN SUPPORT OF MINOROPENER'S REBID AFTER STRONG SINGLE-SUITED JUMP SHIFTOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1D 3NT (SEMI-PUDDING)
    PassProhibited response; the fit-jump is a forcing bid.
    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.Natural, nothing to say.Partial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.Partial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.Not interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.Partial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.Strong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.Not even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.Significant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.Shows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.Not even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    any minor not at 4-levelto play
    1NT12-14 balanced. There's also a weak inference available that the hand might well be single-suited in diamonds, since a 12-14 balanced hand that's 4-4 in a major and a minor will open the major, while 1C is a more flexible opening bid than 1D if holding two equivalent minor suits... although this isn't a firm rule and an opening bid of either minor in these circumstances is acceptable. Nevertheless a 1C opening is in general better it because allows partner more room and the Inverted Minor responses are more informative.
    2CClub fit, naturalnatural, unbalanced
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalancedtrial bidNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, denies trump support
    New suit below first suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced.
    Rebid6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.natural, unbalancednatural, denies trump support
    Rebid first suit5+ trumps, denies support for partner and any side suit en route. If the hand must thus be single-suited, then the bid promises 6 trumps.
    ReverseNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, reverse, normally 16+ pointsNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), reversing strength, unbalanced
    2HNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2SNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2 of a majornatural and forcing, to be assumed to be trial bid
    2 suitNatural and shape-showing, second suit. If later rebid, shows a five-card suit.
    Raise4-card support4-card support100% pre-emptive, to playtrump fit.
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalancedGame-forcing, unbalanced.Invitational to 3NT. Game-forcing would have been more consistent with the rest of the system, mind you.12-14, natural, showing either (a) a balanced hand with no four-card major, since we open the major on 12-14 balanced hands with a major and a minor, or (b) a 4441 hand with a singleton club. Thus the bid shows either both majors or neither! (Theoretically a 12-14 5422 hand might decide to open the five-card minor instead of the four-card major and then still have a blameless-looking no-trump rebid available, but if that's the case then in this specific sequence such a hand should rebid the minor for clarity. It makes it possible for responder to ascertain the situation with confidence after 1D 2C 2NT.) This is the only uncontested auction in which when a no-trump rebid is allowed on a 4441 hand, since we never rebid 1NT with a singleton major (too dangerous) and there are no rebid problems if the auction begins 1C 1D.Game-forcing, unbalanced. It's not to play, because a weak no-trump can't seriously want to play in 2NT opposite a known bad hand. Better just to sign off in the agreed trump suit as quickly as possible and hope that the opponents don't realise the situation.Maximum weak no-trump, doesn't deny a 4-card majorgame-forcingforcing relay12-14 balanced, no support for partner's suit
    3CClub fit, reversing strengthGame-forcing, 5-4 in minors
    Jump rebidGood 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.Reversing strength, single-suited with a good six-card suit and denying support for partner.Big six-card suit, reversing strength.
    3-level jump rebidSix good trumps, normally 16+ points. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    3 of a majorsplinter
    raise to 3To play, denying a four-card major
    New suit up to 3-levelA probe for 3NT, showing a feature.
    New suit at 3-levelShows feature and a strong hand making a game try, often a probe for 3NT but might also be a trial bid for 5m. Not game-forcing, so the auction can stop in 4m.
    Jump shiftNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape or 5-5 if a game-forcing 2NT rebid was available, game-forcingnatural, game-forcingnatural, game-forcingnatural, game-forcing
    Jump raise4-card support, normally 16+ pointsMinorwoodTrump fit, reversing strength. If four of a minor, Minorwood.
    Jump shift above reverseClub fit, game-forcing splinterAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitSplinter, showing game-forcing values and no interest in exploring major-suit fits.splinter
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.Splinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.Splinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter, agreeing partner's suit. If there are two splinters, e.g. 1D 1S 3H and 1D 1S 4H, then the higher one is the full-blooded game-forcing splinter and the lower one is merely a strong game invitation with reversing strength and the indicated small singleton.Splinter in support of partner's suit, purely shape-showing, neither confirms nor denies extra high-card strength.splinter
    3NTto play, with a long running minorTo play, with either: (a) a long running diamond suit, or (b) an extremely strong 4441 with a singleton club and no other rebid.showing a long solid diamond suitto play, with a long running diamond suitTo play, with a good balanced 12-14, no four-card major and 5+ of the bid suitto playto play, with a long running minorto playto play, if jump then a void in partner's suit
    4-level jump rebidMinorwood
    New suit at 4-leveltrial bidCue bid, since there's no Serious 3NT available to indicate a desire to cue-bid as there would be if the agreed suit was a major.
    Raise fit-jump major3-card support
    Raise fit-jump minor to 3game try, showing supporting values
    Raise fit-jump minor to 4Minorwood (two-suited)
    Agreed suit, any other levelto play
    Agreed suit, 4-levelMinorwood
    4CTwo-Suited Blackwood for the minorsRequest to start cue-bidding first and second round controls, not itself a cue-bid. Opener might be hoping to be able to ask for key cards later with 4NT (RKC Blackwood) and if so has a hand capable of coping with a 5H/5S response.
    4DMinorwood for diamondsMinorwood
    4 of a minorMinorwood
    New suit between 4D and 5DExclusion Blackwood
    Raise to 4 (jump)Minorwood
    raise to 4Minorwood
    raise to game or slamTo play
    Jump raise to gameTo play, shape rather than strength
    4-level rebidMinorwood
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTTwo-suited Blackwood for both bid suitsquantitative invitation to 6NT5-card support, 4 Key Cards.Exclusion Blackwood, the void suit being clubsShows a very strong hand that is confident of making at least game in the agreed suit and is in no way whatsoever just being pre-emptive. Partner is allowed to have a bash at slam with significant extras, while of course if the opposition intervene then they'll almost certainly be going for a big number.RKC Blackwood for partner's majorBlackwood, for responder's suit if majorQuantitative, inviting slam in no-trumps.
    5Cto play
    5Dto play
    5 of a majorComplete two-suiter
    5-level rebidCompletely solid trump suit, no losers even opposite a void. Responder's next bid is RKC Blackwood response, showing Key Cards.
    Raise to 5+to play, possibly pre-emptive
    Jump raise to 5Showing a trump fit (obviously) and all the key cards, i.e. all four aces and the king of trumps, which is already 19 points without even considering the rest of the hand. The advantage of this bid is that it bypasses a Blackwood bid that neither partner would have wanted to say. Your hand obviously has no interest in asking for key cards, while conversely your partner would have probably been nervous of doing so, having none himself. Further continuations (if any) are cue-bids, looking for a grand slam.4-card support for partner in an unbalanced hand, but without any key cards or small singletons.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTGrand Slam Forcequantitative invitation to 7NTQuantitative, inviting grand slam in no-trumps
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretationNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1H OPENER'S REBID

    BIDOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1H-1SOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1H-1NT1H/1S OPENER'S REBID AFTER A GAME-FORCING TWO-OVER-ONE MINOR-SUIT RESPONSE1H/S OPENER'S REBID AFTER A WEAK SINGLE RAISE FROM RESPONDEROPENER'S REBID AFTER FIT-JUMP IN SUPPORT OF MAJOROPENER'S REBID AFTER A PASSED-HAND 2C, SHOWING A WEAK HAND WITH THREE-CARD SUPPORT FOR A MAJOROPENER'S REBID AFTER A PASSED-HAND 2D, SHOWING AN INTERMEDIATE HAND WITH THREE-CARD SUPPORT FOR A MAJOROPENER'S REBID AFTER STRONG SINGLE-SUITED JUMP SHIFT
    PassProhibited response; the fit-jump is a forcing bid.
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    pass after doublePartial support for partner's suit, i.e. three cards.Natural, nothing to say.Partial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.Not interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.Partial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    redoubleSignificant extra strength and not even partial support for partner's suit, i.e. either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties.Strong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.Not even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.Shows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.Not even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    1NT12-14 balanced, denies spades
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), shows five of first-bid major and four of second suit.Natural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced.trial bidTrial bid, even at the 4-level. A hand that wants to cue bid can go via the Serious 3NT.natural and forcing, to be assumed to be a trial bidNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, denies trump support
    Rebid6 hearts, single-suited6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.Natural, denies en route second suit.to playnatural, denies trump support
    ReverseNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), reversing strength, unbalanced.
    2 of minorNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape
    2Snatural, unbalanced, reversing strength (normally 16+)
    Raise4 spades, limit raise4-card support100% pre-emptive, to playtrump fit.
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalancedGame-forcing, unbalanced.12-14 balanced. If the opening bid was 1S then opener is unlikely to have hearts as well, because we open 1H on a 12-14 4432 with both majors.game-forcingforcing relayGame-forcing, unbalanced. It's not to play, because a weak no-trump can't seriously want to play in 2NT opposite a known bad hand. Better just to sign off in the agreed trump suit as quickly as possible and hope that the opponents don't realise the situation.Game-invitational, showing an upper-range weak no trump with only four of the bid suit.12-14 balanced, no support for partner's suit
    Jump rebidGood 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.Reversing strength, single-suited with a good six-card suit and denying support for partner.to playBig six-card suit, reversing strength.
    Jump rebid, e.g. 1H 1S 3HStrong (normally 16+) and single-suited, 6 hearts. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    3 of minorNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), game-forcing, 5-4 shape
    3 of a minorgame-forcing, 5+ hearts and 4+ of second suit, or 5-5 if a game-forcing 2NT rebid was available
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcingnatural, game-forcing
    Jump raise, e.g. 1H 1S 3Sstrong (normally 16+), 5 hearts and 4 spades
    Jump raiseMinorwoodto playTrump fit, reversing strength. If four of a minor, Minorwood.
    Jump shift above reverseAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitsplinter
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.Splinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter in support of partner's suit, purely shape-showing, neither confirms nor denies extra high-card strength.splinter
    3NTBased on a long, solid suit, i.e. akin to the equivalent bid had the opening bid instead been one of a minor. Shows a hand with lots of tricks off the top (seven or eight if partner is weak). Any continuation except four of opener's suit is investigating slam.Serious 3NTto playto play, if jump then a void in partner's suit
    Raise fit-jump minorGame-forcing, not Minorwood
    Raise fit-jump major3-card support, slam try
    4 of minorsplinter
    Jump raise to gameTo play, shape rather than strength
    4-level rebidto play
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTRKC Blackwood for spadesquantitative invitation to 6NT5-card support, 4 Key Cards. It's absolutely not Blackwood, since there's unlikely to be any such need for precipitate action. With a hand that wants to bid Blackwood, you'll just have to make a quiet waiting bid and see what partner does next.RKC BlackwoodBlackwood, for responder's suit if major
    5 of majorinviting slam, asking about trump quality
    5-level rebidquantitative invitation to 6 of suitquantitative invitation to 6 of suitCompletely solid trump suit, no losers even opposite a void. Responder's next bid is RKC Blackwood response, showing Key Cards.
    Jump raise to 5Showing a trump fit (obviously) and all the key cards, i.e. all four aces and the king of trumps, which is already 19 points without even considering the rest of the hand. The advantage of this bid is that it bypasses a Blackwood bid that neither partner would have wanted to say. Your hand obviously has no interest in asking for key cards, while conversely your partner would have probably been nervous of doing so, having none himself. Further continuations (if any) are cue-bids, looking for a grand slam.4-card support for partner in an unbalanced hand, but without any key cards or small singletons.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTGrand Slam Forcequantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    1S OPENER'S REBID

    BIDOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1S-1NT1H/1S OPENER'S REBID AFTER A GAME-FORCING TWO-OVER-ONE MINOR-SUIT RESPONSE1S OPENER'S REBID AFTER A GAME-FORCING TWO-OVER-ONE 2H RESPONSE1H/S OPENER'S REBID AFTER A WEAK SINGLE RAISE FROM RESPONDEROPENER'S REBID AFTER A PASSED-HAND 2C, SHOWING A WEAK HAND WITH THREE-CARD SUPPORT FOR A MAJOROPENER'S REBID AFTER A PASSED-HAND 2D, SHOWING AN INTERMEDIATE HAND WITH THREE-CARD SUPPORT FOR A MAJOROPENER'S REBID AFTER FIT-JUMP IN SUPPORT OF MAJOROPENER'S REBID AFTER STRONG SINGLE-SUITED JUMP SHIFT
    PassProhibited response; the fit-jump is a forcing bid.
    pass after doubleNatural, nothing to say.Partial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.Not interested in raising pre-emptively. Denies having either (a) significant extra strength or (b) greater-than-minimum trump length.Partial support for partner's suit, e.g. three after 1S 2D, or a doubleton after 1S 2H.
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    redoubleStrong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.Not even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.Shows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.Not even partial support for partner's suit, either a singleton or doubleton. However not a void, because partner might gamble to play in the redoubled contract. Says nothing about strength, since the partnership is known to have at least game-going values.
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), shows five of first-bid major and four of second suit.Natural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced.Natural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), reversing strength, 5-4 in spades and the minor.trial bidnatural and forcing, to be assumed to be a trial bidTrial bid, even at the 4-level. A hand that wants to cue bid can go via the Serious 3NT.Natural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), 5-4 shape, denies trump support
    Rebid6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.Natural, denies en route second suit.Natural, unbalanced with no more than two hearts. Doesn't necessarily deny a second suit, because to bid either 3C or 3D would have been a reverse.to playnatural, denies trump support
    ReverseNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), reversing strength, unbalanced.
    Raise4-card supportAt least 3-card heart support.100% pre-emptive, to playtrump fit.
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalanced.12-14 balanced. If the opening bid was 1S then opener is unlikely to have hearts as well, because we open 1H on a 12-14 4432 with both majors.12-14 balanced, doubleton heartgame-forcingGame-forcing, unbalanced. It's not to play, because a weak no-trump can't seriously want to play in 2NT opposite a known bad hand. Better just to sign off in the agreed trump suit as quickly as possible and hope that the opponents don't realise the situation.Game-invitational, showing an upper-range weak no trump with only four of the bid suit.forcing relay12-14 balanced, no support for partner's suit
    Jump rebidGood 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.Reversing strength, single-suited with a good six-card suit and denying support for partner.to playBig six-card suit, reversing strength.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcingnatural, game-forcing
    Jump raiseMinorwood5-5 in the majors but not reversing strength, i.e. 11-15 pointsto playTrump fit, reversing strength. If four of a minor, Minorwood.
    Jump shift below 4 of agreed suitsplinter
    Unnecessary jump shift up to Splinter LevelSplinter, agreeing partner's trump suit and showing a small singleton or void. Splinters are normally game-forcing, but if two of them were available then the lower is merely invitational, e.g. 1C 1S 3D/4D are both splinters, since 1C 1S 2D would have been a reverse.
    Jump shift at splinter levelSplinter in support of partner's suit, purely shape-showing, neither confirms nor denies extra high-card strength.splinter
    3NTBased on a long, solid suit, i.e. akin to the equivalent bid had the opening bid instead been one of a minor. Shows a hand with lots of tricks off the top (seven or eight if partner is weak). Any continuation except four of opener's suit is investigating slam.Serious 3NTto playSerious 3NTto play, if jump then a void in partner's suit
    4 of a new suitAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    Raise fit-jump minorGame-forcing, not Minorwood
    Raise fit-jump major3-card support, slam try
    4-level rebidto play
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT5-card support, 4 Key Cards. It's absolutely not Blackwood, since there's unlikely to be any such need for precipitate action. With a hand that wants to bid Blackwood, you'll just have to make a quiet waiting bid and see what partner does next.RKC Blackwood, agreeing hearts.RKC BlackwoodBlackwood, for responder's suit if major
    5-level rebidquantitative invitation to 6 of suitquantitative invitation to 6 of suitCompletely solid trump suit, no losers even opposite a void. Responder's next bid is RKC Blackwood response, showing Key Cards.
    Jump raise to 5Showing a trump fit (obviously) and all the key cards, i.e. all four aces and the king of trumps, which is already 19 points without even considering the rest of the hand. The advantage of this bid is that it bypasses a Blackwood bid that neither partner would have wanted to say. Your hand obviously has no interest in asking for key cards, while conversely your partner would have probably been nervous of doing so, having none himself. Further continuations (if any) are cue-bids, looking for a grand slam.4-card support for partner in an unbalanced hand, but without any key cards or small singletons.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 1NT RESPONSE

    BIDOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1C-1NT, SHOWING A CLUB FITOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1D-1NT1C OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 7.5-10 CONSTRUCTIVE 1NT RESPONSE OVER AN OPPOSITION OVERCALL1D OPENER'S REBID AFTER A 7.5-10 CONSTRUCTIVE 1NT RESPONSE OVER AN OPPOSITION OVERCALLOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1H-1NTOPENER'S REBID AFTER 1S-1NT
    pass after doubleA balanced 12-14 point hand with poor trumps and a preference for playing in 1NT rather than the club contract.Natural, nothing to say.
    redoubleShows game-forcing strength and an interest in possibly doubling the opponents for penalties.Strong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.Strong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penaltiesStrong and unbalanced, shows interest in doubling the opponents for penalties and likely to hold values in any suit that partner has denied with their 1NT response.
    2CTo play, not promising any additional length since the partnership has a known club fit.Club fit, naturalnaturalnatural, unbalanced
    New suitNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), shows five of first-bid major and four of second suit.
    Rebid6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.6-card suit, denies en route second suit unless at least 7-4 shape.
    2D, 2H, 2SNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2DNatural reverse, showing 5-4 in the minors.
    2HNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strengthNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strength
    2SNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strengthNatural (even if the opposition have overcalled in the suit), unbalanced, reversing strengthnatural, unbalanced, reversing strength (normally 16+)
    2 of a majorNatural reverse, showing a second suit and 5-4 shape. (Doesn't promise a five-card major, even though responder's denied a four-card major.)
    2NTGame-forcing, unbalancedGame-forcing, unbalanced.Invitational to 3NT. Game-forcing would have been more consistent with the rest of the system, mind you.Game-forcing, unbalanced.
    3CTo play.Club fit, reversing strengthClub fit, reversing strength
    Jump rebidGood 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.Good 6-card suit, at least reversing strength. Any continuation over this by responder in an uncontested auction is game-forcing.
    3 of a minorgame-forcing, 5+ hearts and 4+ of second suit, or 5-5 if a game-forcing 2NT rebid was available
    New suit at 3 levelGame-forcing splinter, agreeing clubs.Auto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    Jump shiftnatural, game-forcing
    Jump shift above reverseClub fit, game-forcing splinterAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    3NTto playTo play, with either: (a) a long running diamond suit, or (b) an extremely strong 4441 with a singleton club and no other rebid.to playTo play, with either: (a) a long running diamond suit, or (b) an extremely strong 4441 with a singleton club and no other rebid.Based on a long, solid suit, i.e. akin to the equivalent bid had the opening bid instead been one of a minor. Shows a hand with lots of tricks off the top (seven or eight if partner is weak). Any continuation except four of opener's suit is investigating slam.
    4 of a new suitAuto-splinter, showing a singleton/void and a self-supporting trump suit. Game-forcing.
    4CMinorwoodMinorwood
    4 of a minorMinorwoodMinorwood
    New suit at 4 levelExclusion Blackwood
    Game-level rebidGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.Good 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour. However the hand's nothing special in terms of high cards, probably 12-14 points or so.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5Cto playGood 7-card suit (missing at most one of the top four honours) that would be (a) happy in game opposite a void and (b) good for grand slam opposite that missing singleton honour.to play
    5-level rebidquantitative invitation to 6 of suit
    New suit at 5 levelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Jump shift to Blackwood LevelExclusion BlackwoodExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NT
    Jump shift to Grand-Hunting LevelComplete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.Complete two-suiter. If the partnership had previously bid more than one suit and so there's ambiguity about which suits are being promised, then the other one is the first-bid suit of the player who just jumped.
    Any slamNo systemic agreement; the natural interpretation

    STAYMAN RESPONSES

    BID1NT-2C (FOUR-CARD MAJORS)2NT-3C (FOUR-CARD MAJORS)2D-2H-2?-3C (AT LEAST 5-4 IN THE MAJORS)2D-3C (FIVE-CARD MAJORS)
    Pass after overcallmight be passing for penalties, hoping for a reopening takeout double from partner
    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.Shows a good five-card suit, or alternatively if that's impossible given the earlier bidding then an outstandingly good four-card suit (at least AKQx).To play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    Diamondsdenies a four-card major"what's your 5-card major?""what's your 4-card major?"
    Heartsfour heartsfive hearts
    Spadesfour spades, denying four heartsfive spades, happy for 3NT to be played the wrong way up
    No Trumpsto play, denying the majors.to play, denying the majors

    STAYMAN BIDDER'S CONTINUATIONS

    BID1NT-2C-2D ("NEGATIVE")1NT-2C-2H ("FOUR HEARTS")1NT-2C-2S ("FOUR SPADES, DENYING HEARTS")2NT-3C-3D ("NEGATIVE")2NT-3C-3H ("FOUR HEARTS")2NT-3C-3S ("FOUR") OR 2D-3C-3S ("FIVE")2D-3C-3H ("FIVE HEARTS")2D-3C-3NT, DENYING A FOUR-CARD MAJOR2D-2H-2any-3C-3NT ("2-2 IN THE MAJORS")2D-2H-2any-3C-3H ("FOUR HEARTS")2D-2H-2any-3C-3S ("FOUR SPADES, DENYING HEARTS")2D-2H-2any-3C-3D ("WHAT'S YOUR FIVE-CARD MAJOR?")2D-3C-3D ("WHAT'S YOUR FOUR-CARD MAJOR?")
    Doubletakeout
    Pass after doubleShows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.Shows a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in the doubled conventional bid if partner has trumps too.
    RedoubleTo play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.To play, good five-card suit, but partner's allowed to take it out if unsuitable.
    2Hweak take-out, to play
    2Sweak take-out, to playnatural and slam-going, looking for 4-4 trump fits
    2NTquantitative, inviting 3NT with a four-card major
    3C after a double of the 2C bidgame-forcing, asking for a club stop for 3NT.
    3C, 3Dgame-forcing and probably slam interest, with at least a good 5-card suit. Blackwood hasn't been unlocked, so opener can raise. This sequence says nothing about responder's majors.
    3H5-5 in the majors, game-invitational5-4 in the majors with 5 of the bid suit, game-forcingshows the other major
    3S5-5 in the majors, slam-invitational5-4 in the majors with 5 of the bid suit, game-forcingnatural and slam-going, looking for 4-4 trump fits"please bid 3NT" -- also promises four spadesslam invitation with 5-5 in the majors, unlocking Blackwoodshows the other major
    Raise to threeinviting four
    3 of the other majorslam invitation with 5-5 in the majors, unlocking Blackwood
    3NTto play, with a four-card major"please start bidding four-card minors"Serious 3NT5-5 in the majors, denies ability to splinter4-4 in the majors
    4C, 4DMinorwood5-5 in the majors and void-showing, inviting partner to reconsider. A 4NT continuation after this by opener is to play, not RKC Blackwood.splinter, unlocking Blackwood5-5 in the majors, splinter, unlocking Blackwood. After that a 4NT continuation from opener would be Blackwood for hearts and 5C for spades.Minorwood
    4 of majorto playto playto playto play
    4 of partner's majorto playto playto play
    4 of the other majorBlackwood, agreeing partner's suitBlackwood, agreeing partner's suitComplete Two-Suiter... since it can't be Exclusion Blackwood!slam invitation with 5-5 in the majors, unlocking Blackwood
    4NTquantitative, inviting 6NTRKC Blackwood for the known trump fit. It doesn't need to be quantitative (as usual in Staymanic auctions) because 2D 2H 3C promised both majors from responder.quantitative, inviting 6NT. Opener can always bid a suit if their hand looks particularly suitable for trump play and they still want to know about responder's five-card major.
    5Cto playto playto playTwo-Suited Exclusion BlackwoodExclusion BlackwoodTwo-Suited Exclusion Blackwood
    5Dto playto playto playTwo-Suited Exclusion BlackwoodExclusion BlackwoodTwo-Suited Exclusion Blackwood
    5 of a majorvoid-showing, "pick a slam"void-showing, "pick a slam"void-showing, "pick a slam"inviting sixinviting six
    5 of partner's majorquantitative, inviting a trump slamquantitative, inviting a trump slamquantitative, inviting a trump slam
    5 of the other majorWhoops, partner, I forgot that I could have bid only 4S to show a complete two-suiter. Ah well. Sorry about that. It's still a complete two-suiter anyway.Complete Two-Suiter
    5 of any other suitExclusion BlackwoodExclusion Blackwood
    5NTquantitative, inviting 7NTthe Grand Slam Force, asking partner to bid seven if holding two of the top three trump honours.quantitative, inviting 7NT
    Any slamto play

    STRONG BALANCED OPENINGS

    BIDRESPONSES TO 1NTRESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2NTRESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2D
    PassTo play. If the opponents compete in a suit, a next-round double from this hand is competitive and for takeout.to playto play, weak with diamonds
    DoubleTake-out if below 4S. Uniquely, to double and then keep bidding when/if partner takes it out is game-forcing (and shows at least a five-card suit), which isn't what the sequence shows after other opening bids. The reason is that an immediate bid (instead of double) would have been non-forcing and to play, so by corollary making a takeout double and then bidding on must be strong and forcing. This will still be true even if partner subsequently doubles (penalties) the opponents after they've kept up their intervention... if responder had a weak hand that couldn't stand to hear opener make a penalty double, then it shouldn't have made a takeout double in the first place and should have either passed or bid a suit.Take-out if below 4S. To make a takeout double and then keep bidding even when partner pulls it is game-forcing and natural (showing only a four-card suit) up to 3NT or else above that a slam try, agreeing partner's suit. If you want to play in a part-score, all you can do is pass and hope partner finds a reopening double, then make your non-forcing bid.
    Pass after doubleOstensibly promising a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in diamonds if partner has some too. Opener is expected to redouble if holding four-card trump support or a very good three, e.g. AKx. However the fact that partner isn't allowed to pass out the double means that there's a second option: it might also be a waiting bid on a hand with a diamond void! There's unlikely to be ambiguity because even if the opponents pre-empt in diamonds, the assumed hand type will be doubling for penalties, while the second hand type (void) will probably keep bidding.
    RedoubleWants to double the opponents for penalties.To play, with a strong five-card suit. The 2D opener isn't allowed to pull the redouble. If the opponents try to run, all doubles are for penalties and no one is allowed to play the hand in an undoubled part-score.
    2CStayman, promising either (a) a four-card major, or (b) a long minor suit and slam interest.
    2Dtransfer to 2H
    2Htransfer to 2S(a) transfer to no-trumps, either weak or slam-going or (b) with spades (including a hand that's 5-4 in the majors)
    2Stransfer to the minorstransfer to clubs
    2NT, but different responses if doubledtransfer to diamonds, game-forcing. (A hand that wanted to make a weak take-out in diamonds would simply pass the opening bid.)
    2NTquantitative with 9 points or a good 8, inviting 3NT
    2NT after doubleCan't be a transfer to diamonds because such a hand would pass or redouble. Instead shows a game-forcing 4441 hand with a singleton diamond.
    2NT after overcallto play, not invitational. There's no longer any invitational sequence available after the opposition have intervened over our 1NT opening. You'll have to take a view and either bid 2NT or 3NT for yourself, either of which partner will pass.
    3C after an intervening Unusual 2NT for the minorsStaymanic with game-going values, denying a five-card major.
    3Cgame-forcing splinter, promising a four-card major and opening hand strength. Unlocks Blackwood. A hand that wants to splinter if 3-1 in the majors should go via 1NT-2S.Stayman (ordinary four-card)Five-Card Stayman, game-forcing and promising a four-card major
    3Dgame-forcing splinter, promising a four-card major and opening hand strength. Unlocks Blackwood. A hand that wants to splinter if 3-1 in the majors should go via 1NT-2S.transfer to hearts
    3Hgame-forcing splinter, promising a four-card major and opening hand strength. Unlocks Blackwood. A hand that wants to splinter if 3-1 in the majors should go via 1NT-2S.transfer to spadestransfer to 3NT
    3Sgame-forcing splinter, promising a four-card major and opening hand strength. Unlocks Blackwood. A hand that wants to splinter if 3-1 in the majors should go via 1NT-2S.transfer to clubstransfer to 3NT
    New suit after interventionNatural and non-forcing, to play, all conventions off. Opener is expected usually to pass. If instead they bid again after 1NT (2H) 2S, for instance, this is similar to breaking a transfer or raising partner's weak takeout. It's a gamble, obviously, but sometimes it strikes gold because partner will have been holding invitational values and the overcall deprived your side of an invitational sequence. It shows an encouraging maximum and if it's a new suit, promises a good five-card suit.
    New suit after overcallNatural, at least a five-card suit, game-forcing. Makes no promise as to suit quality.
    Jump shift after overcallIf four of a minor or 4NT, it's ace-asking. Otherwise it's to play and possibly pre-emptive.
    Jump shift after interventionnatural, game-forcing
    3NTto playmassive two-suiter in the minors
    Cue-bid after overcallasking for a stop for 3NTTake-out, game-forcing, likely to have slam interest.
    4CTransfer to next suit. Super-accepts are banned at the four level.massive two-suiter in the majors
    4D, 4H, 4STransfer to next suit. Super-accepts are banned at the four level.
    4D, 4H, 4S, 4NTtransfer to 4H, 4S, 5C and 5D respectively.
    4NTquantitative invitation to 6NT
    5 of a minorto play
    5 of a major"pick a slam", 5440 shape with a void in the bid suit.
    5 of a suitSolid eight-card suit, which has to be at least AKQxxxxx, and nothing of significance in the other three suits. AKxxxxxx isn't enough because if missing three cards including the queen, there's a 22% chance of a 3-0 trump break. Partner's response is to play, even if it's in a different suit.
    5NTquantitative invitation to 7NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT, wanting to play the hand. Unlikely to have a five-card suit, because such a hand has the option of transferring and then jumping to 5NT.
    any slamTo play, showing a no-loser trump suit at the six level. Not a transfer.To play and not a transfer, possibly holding extreme shape and concerned about an opposition sacrifice. The vulnerability will obviously make a big difference. Opener should be more cautious about an unexpected raise to seven than if responder had gone via a 3M 3NT relay sequence.

    RESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2D, INCLUDING RELAYS

    BIDRESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2DRESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2D VIA A 3H RELAY to 3NTRESPONSES TO AN OPENING 2D VIA A 3S RELAY to 3NTRESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2NT (NO BIDDABLE FIVE-CARD SUIT)RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-2S (FIVE-CARD SUIT)RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-3C (5422 with 4 clubs and 5 spades)RESPONDER'S REBID AFTER 2D-2H-3D (5422 with 4 diamonds and 5 spades)
    Passto play, weak with diamondsto play
    Pass after doubleOstensibly promising a non-horrible four-card suit, willing to play in diamonds if partner has some too. Opener is expected to redouble if holding four-card trump support or a very good three, e.g. AKx. However the fact that partner isn't allowed to pass out the double means that there's a second option: it might also be a waiting bid on a hand with a diamond void! There's unlikely to be ambiguity because even if the opponents pre-empt in diamonds, the assumed hand type will be doubling for penalties, while the second hand type (void) will probably keep bidding.
    RedoubleTo play, with a strong five-card suit. The 2D opener isn't allowed to pull the redouble. If the opponents try to run, all doubles are for penalties and no one is allowed to play the hand in an undoubled part-score.game-forcing strength. All doubles from now on are for penalty and the final contract can't be an undoubled part-score.to play, promising at least game-going values
    2H(a) transfer to no-trumps, either weak or slam-going or (b) with spades (including a hand that's 5-4 in the majors)
    2Stransfer to clubs
    2NT"what's your five-card suit?"
    2NT, but different responses if doubledtransfer to diamonds, game-forcing. (A hand that wanted to make a weak take-out in diamonds would simply pass the opening bid.)
    2NT after doubleCan't be a transfer to diamonds because such a hand would pass or redouble. Instead shows a game-forcing 4441 hand with a singleton diamond.
    3CFive-Card Stayman, game-forcing and promising a four-card majorStayman-like, showing 5-4 or 5-5 in the majors. Game-forcing.
    3Dtransfer to heartsTransfer to spades. Under- and super-accepts permitted, game-forcing.trial bid
    3Htransfer to 3NTTransfer to spades, no super-accepts permitted. Opener must reply 3S.transfer to 3S
    3Stransfer to 3NTAsking about four-card minorsAgrees spades, game-forcing. (Weak hands will transfer via 3H.)
    3NTmassive two-suiter in the minorsStrong slam interest, asks partner to start bidding non-horrible 4-card suits upwardsSerious 3NT for an as-yet unspecified suit (might be clubs!)Serious 3NT for an as-yet unspecified suit (might be diamonds!)
    4Cmassive two-suiter in the majorsmassive two-suiter in the two bid suitsagrees clubs, Minorwood
    4C, 4D, 4HSplinter, agreeing spades. Unlocks Blackwood.
    4Dtransfer to 4H, 4S, 5C and 5D respectively.massive two-suiter in the two bid suitsagrees diamonds, Minorwood
    4Htransfer to 4H, 4S, 5C and 5D respectively.To play.
    4S, 5Cto play
    4Stransfer to 4H, 4S, 5C and 5D respectively.To play.to play
    4S, 5Dto play
    4 of new suitSplinter, unlocks Two-Suited Minorwood or Blackwood
    4NTtransfer to 4H, 4S, 5C and 5D respectively.Quantitative invitation to 6NT. Unlikely to have a five-card suit, because such a hand has the option of transferring and then jumping to 4NT.RKC Blackwood in spadesTwo-Suited Blackwood
    5C, 5D, 5HExclusion Blackwood in spades.
    5SQuantitative invitation to 6SQuantitative invitation to six
    5 of a suitSolid eight-card suit, which has to be at least AKQxxxxx, and nothing of significance in the other three suits. AKxxxxxx isn't enough because if missing three cards including the queen, there's a 22% chance of a 3-0 trump break. Partner's response is to play, even if it's in a different suit.Solid six-card suit, which has to be at least AKQJxx, and no high cards of significance in the other three suits. Partner's response is to play, even if it's in a different suit.Solid seven-card suit, which has to be at least AKQxxxx, and nothing of significance in the other three suits. Partner's response is to play, even if it's in a different suit.
    5 of new suitTwo-Suited Exclusion Blackwood
    5NTQuantitative invitation to 7NT, wanting to play the hand. Unlikely to have a five-card suit, because such a hand has the option of transferring and then jumping to 5NT.Quantitative invitation to 7NT. Unlikely to have a five-card suit, because such a hand has the option of transferring and then jumping to 5NT.Quantitative invitation to 7NT
    any slamTo play and not a transfer, possibly holding extreme shape and concerned about an opposition sacrifice. The vulnerability will obviously make a big difference. Opener should be more cautious about an unexpected raise to seven than if responder had gone via a 3M 3NT relay sequence.To play, at the six-level showing a no-loser trump suit and an outside ace. Not a transfer.To play, at the six-level showing a no-loser trump suit and no outside aces. Not a transfer.to play

    COLLECTED TABLE OF OVERCALLS

    BIDDEFENCE TO 1NTOVERCALLS WHEN THE OPPONENTS HAVE BID ONE SUIT AT LEAST SEMI-NATURALLY, NOT COUNTING NO-TRUMPSOVERCALLS WHEN THE OPPONENTS HAVE BID TWO DIFFERENT SUITS NATURALLY (ISH)
    Any bid in the pass-out seatA king weaker than when bid directly, EXCEPT for double.A king weaker than when bid directly.
    Doublethe majorsOne of two hand types. DEFAULT ASSUMPTION: take-out, opening strength, support for unbid suits. This is a "say it once and shut up" bid that thereafter leaves all competitive decisions to partner and the doubler is not expected to bid again unless partner finds a bid that asks them to do so. To do so shows extreme strength (17+) and previous assumptions about shape no longer apply. NOTE: this bid promises proper opening values (i.e. you'd been going to open the bidding if the opponents had passed) AND support for the unbid suits. Opening a 4441 10-count "because the shape is perfect" is a violation of all that is good and will cause cancer in kittens.
    Double from a non-passed hand against a known weak or super-weak no-trump, i.e. an average point count below 15 pointsStrong, for penalties. Promises at least two points more than the average point count for an opening 1NT in the opponents' system. IMPORTANT: not shaded by three points in the protective seat, because responder's pass could still be strong-ish and usually isn't a disaster area. However this is a unique situation and "transfer a king" still applies in all other protective positions.
    Cue bidnatural overcall, to play
    Cue bid of majorMichaels, 5-5 shape, the other major and a minor
    Suit overcall (minors)5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level
    Suit overcall (majors)5-card suit, strength depends on vulnerability and level
    Jump suit overcallWeak Two, 6-10 and a 6-card suit
    Suit jump in the pass-out seat10-14 actual points (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies a four-card major side-suit, like a fourth-seat 2H opening.
    Suit jump in spades in the pass-out seat8-12 (i.e. no transferred king), 6+ trumps, denies four hearts, like a fourth-seat 2S opening.
    Greater jump suit overcallPre-emptive
    Suit (any level)Natural
    minimum club bidclubs and a major
    minimum diamond biddiamonds and a major
    No-trumps (any level)the minors
    1NT from a passed hand (protective)Stretching with a good eleven-count and the usual transferred-king principle.
    1NT from a passed hand (non-protective)5-5 shape and a distribution that can't be shown with either Unusual 2NT or Michaels, e.g. the black suits after a diamond opening. If there's no such unshowable distribution (i.e. after a major opening), it's the LOWER of the two Michaels options, i.e. (1S) passed-hand-1NT would show clubs+hearts.
    1NT15-17, natural, with a useful holding in any opposition suits. Responses are the same as after a 1NT opening bid.
    2C cue bidNatural club overcall. This remains true even if the opponents are playing a natural system and their 1C actually shows clubs. Our 2C overcall retains the same meaning irrespective of that.
    2D over one of a minorMichaels, 5-5 in the majors
    2NT5-5 in the lowest two unbid suits, Unusual 2NT5-5 in the two unbid suits
    Jump to 3-level cue bidasking partner to bid 3NT if they have a stopper in this suit
    Jump to 3NTto play, with a long minorTo play, long running minor.
    4NTAcol 4NT, asking for specific aces
    5NTasking for specific kings
    Reviews
    Copyright 2015 Finn Clark.